Research Papers

Algorithm to Reduce Leading and Lagging in Conformal Direct-Print

[+] Author and Article Information
Morteza Vatani

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Akron,
244 Sumner Street,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: mv35@zips.uakron.edu

Faez Alkadi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Akron,
244 Sumner Street,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: faa23@zips.uakron.edu

Jae-Won Choi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Akron,
244 Sumner Street,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: jchoi1@uakron.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 12, 2018; final manuscript received June 22, 2018; published online July 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(10), 101014 (Jul 27, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4040730 History: Received February 12, 2018; Revised June 22, 2018

A novel additive manufacturing algorithm was developed to increase the consistency of three-dimensional (3D) printed curvilinear or conformal patterns on freeform surfaces. The algorithm dynamically and locally compensates the nozzle location with respect to the pattern geometry, motion direction, and topology of the substrate to minimize lagging or leading during conformal printing. The printing algorithm was implemented in an existing 3D printing system that consists of an extrusion-based dispensing module and an XYZ-stage. A dispensing head is fixed on a Z-axis and moves vertically, while the substrate is installed on an XY-stage and moves in the x–y plane. The printing algorithm approximates the printed pattern using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves translated directly from a 3D model. Results showed that the proposed printing algorithm increases the consistency in the width of the printed patterns. It is envisioned that the proposed algorithm can facilitate nonplanar 3D printing using common and commercially available Cartesian-type 3D printing systems.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Extrusion of the filaments through the nozzle in direct-print: (a) leading of deposited filament. (b) Lagging of the deposited material.

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Fig. 2

Path planning in freeform printing. Printing over a freeform surface would result in a nonuniform and consistent gap height.

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Fig. 3

Schematic for generation of printing path in freeform printing

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Fig. 4

Leading and lagging in freeform printing: (a) lagging occurs when the nozzle is moving upward along the path. (b) Pressing (or leading) occurs when the nozzle is moving downward along the path.

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Fig. 5

Transformation of the motion profile along the motion direction to minimize lagging and leading in conformal printing

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Fig. 6

Creating an arbitrary 3D freeform motion profile

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Fig. 7

Approximation of an arbitrary motion profile using NURBS curves: (a) 3D CAD model of motion profile. (b) Data points regenerated the entire projected circuit calculated using the NURBS approach.

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Fig. 8

Experimental design for validating the performance of the proposed algorithm: (a) printing on an inclined surface. (b) Printing on a sphere.

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Fig. 9

Printing setup for side printing on an inclined surface

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Fig. 10

Printing and measurement setup: (a) a grid with known geometry was drawn on the sphere using a marker. The printing device was programmed to print over this grid. (b) The grid facilitates collecting width measurements at the desired positions.

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Fig. 11

Filament lines printed along the x-direction on the sphere (from φ = 45 deg to φ = −45 deg)

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Fig. 12

Results of side printing on an inclined surface before and after applying the printing algorithm. The dashed line shows the line width before applying the algorithm. The solid line shows the line width after applying the algorithm.

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Fig. 13

Frequency distribution of width of printed lines before and after applying the algorithm on an inclined surface. The dashed bars show the frequency distribution of width of printed lines before applying the proposed algorithm, while the solid bars show the frequency distribution of the data after applying the proposed algorithm.

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Fig. 14

Width of lines printed on the sphere before applying the algorithm

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Fig. 15

Width of lines printed on the sphere after applying the algorithm

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Fig. 16

Frequency distribution of lines printed on the sphere before and after applying the algorithm. The dashed line indicates the frequency distribution before the algorithm was applied, while the solid line indicates the frequency distribution after the algorithm was applied.



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