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Research Papers

Investigations on Additive Manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V by Microplasma Transferred Arc Powder Deposition Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Mayur S. Sawant

Discipline of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Indore,
Simrol 453 552, MP, India
e-mail: phd1301203010@iiti.ac.in

N. K. Jain

Professor
Discipline of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Indore,
Simrol 453 552, MP, India
e-mail: nkjain@iiti.ac.in

Manuscript received January 10, 2018; final manuscript received May 15, 2018; published online June 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(8), 081014 (Jun 04, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1025; doi: 10.1115/1.4040324 History: Received January 10, 2018; Revised May 15, 2018

This paper presents investigation findings on additive manufacturing (AM) aspects of Ti6Al4V by microplasma transferred arc powder deposition (μ-PTAPD) process in continuous and dwell-time mode. Pilot experiments were conducted to identify feasible values of six important parameters of μ-PTAPD process for single-layer deposition followed by 27 main experiments varying three parameters. Energy consumption aspects were used to identify optimum values of parameters varied during main experiments for multilayer deposition. It revealed that higher values of flow rate of powder and travel speed of deposition head result in smaller values of power consumption per unit flow rate of powder and energy consumption per unit traverse length. Continuous and dwell-time modes were used to study deposition characteristics, microstructure, lamellae widths, wear characteristics, tensile properties, fractography of tensile specimen, wear mechanism, and microhardness of multilayer depositions. Dwell-time deposition yielded higher effective wall width (EWW), deposition efficiency (DE), yield strength, ultimate strength, microhardness, surface straightness, lower strain, wear volume and friction coefficient, and smaller lamellar width. It had good deposition quality with fine partial martensite and basket-weave microstructure. Fractography analysis exhibited fine dimple rupture for dwell-time multilayer deposition and occurrence of elongated regions for continuous multilayer deposition. Wear of dwell-time multilayer deposition occurred by microploughing and microcutting resulting in smaller wear debris. Comparison of Ti6Al4V depositions by different processes revealed that dwell-time μ-PTAPD process is cost-effective than laser-based processes and energy efficient than pulsed plasma arc process.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus developed for μ-PTAPD process (a) schematic view and (b) photograph

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Fig. 2

Summary of pilot and main experiments

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Fig. 3

Geometry of a typical multilayer deposition

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Fig. 4

Optical micrograph of continuous single-layer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V corresponding to exp. no. 9

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Fig. 5

Optical micrograph of cross section of the (a) continuous multilayer deposition and (b) dwell-time multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 6

Microstructure of continuous multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V ((a), (b) and (c)) and dwell-time multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V ((d), (e) and (f)): (a) and (d) top; (b) and (e) middle; and (c) and (f) bottom position along the deposition height

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Fig. 7

Lamellae widths along with standard deviations (SD) for continuous and dwell-time multilayer depositions of Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 8

Fractography of tensile specimen of (a) dwell-time and (b) continuous multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 9

Microhardness profile along with standard deviations (SD) for the continuous and dwell-time multilayer depositions of Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 10

Variation of wear volume with frequency for continuous and dwell-time μ-PTAPD multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V

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Fig. 11

Variation of the coefficient of friction with time for continuous and dwell-time multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V at different frequency: (a) 5 Hz, (b) 10 Hz, and (c) 15 Hz

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Fig. 12

SEM images showing wear mechanism of (a) dwell-time and (b) continuous multilayer deposition of Ti–6Al–4V deposition

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Fig. 13

Photograph of typical components of Ti–6Al–4V manufactured by μ-PTAPD process (a) cylindrical and (b) rectangular

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