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Research Papers

Dough Extrusion Forming of Titanium Alloys—Green Body Characteristics, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

[+] Author and Article Information
Pavan Kumar Srivas, Kausik Kapat

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory,
School of Medical Science and Technology,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India

Meher Wan

Advanced Technology Development Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India

Santanu Dhara

Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory,
School of Medical Science and Technology,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
e-mail: sdhara@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 28, 2017; final manuscript received March 22, 2018; published online May 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(7), 071014 (May 14, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1814; doi: 10.1115/1.4039888 History: Received December 28, 2017; Revised March 22, 2018

Titanium and its alloys are widely used in structural applications owing to superior mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In the present study, a simple powder metallurgy-based process is developed to fabricate dense components through formation of dough under ambient condition using Ti6Al4V powder along with chitosan powder as dough forming additive and acetic acid as solvent. The prepared samples had ∼66±1.7% green density and 97.3±2.1% sintered density of the theoretical value. The microstructure of Ti6Al4V was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-CT analysis was carried out for distribution of defects and their influence on flexural strength and microhardness was assessed as well. The prepared green samples had uniform particle distribution that resulted in minimum deformation after sintering. Assessment of mechanical properties revealed that the values of hardness and flexural modulus for sintered samples were comparable to the reported values of Ti6Al4V components prepared using other process. Therefore, the developed method of dough forming for dense titanium components using powder metallurgy route is a simple and viable alternative.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Work flow sheet diagram of PDP for near net shape forming of bulk dense components utilizing Ti6Al4V powder and chitosan as processing aid

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Fig. 2

(a) Viscosity and flow behavior of dough with different metal-binder blend compositions at 0.25 s−1 shear rate and appearance of corresponding extruded samples, (b) viscosity against shear rate plot for dough containing 3 wt % chitosan with best fitting curve in red color, and (c) representing shear thinning behavior of optimized dough D3 under different applied shear rate

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Fig. 3

SEM image of (a) Ti6Al4V as received powder, (b) extruded top surface of green sample, (c) fractured surface of green sample, and (d)–(f) fractured surface of sample after binder burnout showing powder distribution from center to periphery

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Fig. 4

Optical images of green (a) extruded rod, (b) extruded tube, (c) sheet and appearance of sintered samples (d) tube with shiny appearance, (e) bending of samples associated with anisotropic shrinkage, and (f) evidence of surface oxidation of the Ti6Al4V samples

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Fig. 5

(a) XRD patterns of green (below) and sintered (top) Ti6Al4V samples, (b) Rietveld analysis graph of calculated XRD pattern with simulated XRD spectra of sintered Ti6Al4V, (c) SEM image and corresponding elemental distribution by EDX spectra for (d)–(f) different alloying elements like Ti, Al, and V mapping of sintered Ti6Al4V sample

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Fig. 6

(a) Micro-CT image of sintered Ti6Al4V representing distribution of internal defects, (b) optical micrographs showing grain size distribution and grain boundaries; SEM images of fractured surface of the sintered Ti6Al4V sample, (c) brittle and ductile fracture, and (d) magnified view showing origin of failure

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Fig. 7

Weibull distribution plot for flexural strength data of sintered Ti6Al4V samples

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