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Research Papers

Fundamental Machining Characteristics of Ultrasonic-Assisted Electrochemical Grinding of Ti–6Al–4V

[+] Author and Article Information
Sisi Li

Department of Machine Intelligence and
Systems Engineering,
Akita Prefectural University,
Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055, Japan;
Department of Mechanical and
Energy Engineering,
Southern University of Science
and Technology,
Shenzhen 518055, China

Yongbo Wu

Department of Mechanical and
Energy Engineering,
Southern University of Science and Technology,
Shenzhen 518055, China;
Department of Machine Intelligence and
Systems Engineering,
Akita Prefectural University,
Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055, Japan
e-mail: wuyb@sustc.edu.cn

Mitsuyoshi Nomura, Tatsuya Fujii

Department of Machine Intelligence and
Systems Engineering,
Akita Prefectural University,
Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 23, 2017; final manuscript received March 27, 2018; published online May 11, 2018. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(7), 071009 (May 11, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4039855 History: Received March 23, 2017; Revised March 27, 2018

The Ti–6Al–4V is a widely used alloy in the aerospace industry. In order to improve the grindability of Ti–6Al–4V, a hybrid material removal process is proposed in this study. This process is a combination of ultrasonic assisted grinding (UAG) and electrochemical grinding (ECG), hereafter called ultrasonic assisted electrochemical grinding (UAECG). For confirming the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental setup was constructed and the fundamental machining characteristics of UAECG in the grinding of Ti–6Al–4V were experimentally investigated. The results obtained from the investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the normal and tangential forces in UAECG were decreased approximately 57% and 56%, respectively, comparing with conventional grinding (CG). (2) The work-surface roughness Ra both in ECG and UAECG was negative correlation to the electrolytic voltage, UI, and the surface damage; (3) the wheel radius wear in UAECG was considerably smaller than that in ECG when UI < 10 V. The chip adhesion and the grain fracture mainly affected the working lives of the wheels in ECG and UAECG, whereas the wheel wear in CG was predominantly attributed to the grain drop out; (4) a titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer, which had a 78 nm thickness was achieved on the work surface in the condition of UI = 20 V, leading that the Vickers microhardness of work surface in ultrasonic assisted electrochemical was lower than that in CG by 15%.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the principle of UAECG

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 3

The successive cutting point spacing in grinding direction and grains protrusion height: (a) 2D SEM image of a typical area on the wheel working surface, (b) 3D SEM image of a typical grain, (c) distribution percentage of a, and (d) distribution percentage of h

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Fig. 4

Relationships between grinding forces and process parameters: (a) variation of grinding forces during grinding and (b) grinding force versus process parameters

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Fig. 5

Surface roughness rate versus input voltage

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Fig. 6

SEM images of ground work surface: (a) in CG, (b) in UAECG with UI = 20 V, and (c) illustration of the cross section of plastic deformation and crack in grinding direction

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Fig. 7

Grinding wheel wear versus input voltage with and without ultrasonic

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Fig. 8

Type of grain damage in CG (UI = 0 V without ultrasonic)

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Fig. 9

Number percentages of damaged grains in CG, ECG, and UAECG

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Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of FIB specimen preparation and SEM observation: (a) surface coating, (b)FIB machining, and (c) 45 deg tilt

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Fig. 11

The SEM image of workpiece cross section

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Fig. 12

Grain motion trajectory

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