0
Research Papers

Electroplastic Drilling of Low- and High-Strength Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Brandt J. Ruszkiewicz

International Center for Automotive Research,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: brandtruszki@gmail.com

Elizabeth Gendreau

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Clemson University,
Clemson, SC 29607
e-mail: egendre@clemson.edu

Farbod Akhavan Niaki

International Center for Automotive Research,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: fakhava@clemson.edu

Laine Mears

International Center for Automotive Research,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: mears@clemson.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 12, 2017; final manuscript received March 8, 2018; published online April 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061017 (Apr 27, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1568; doi: 10.1115/1.4039648 History: Received September 12, 2017; Revised March 08, 2018

When postforming machining operations are required on high-strength structural components, tool life becomes a costly issue, often requiring external softening via techniques such as laser assistance for press-hardened steel components. Electrically assisted manufacturing (EAM) uses electricity during material removal processes to reduce cutting loads through thermal softening. This paper evaluates the effect of electric current on a drilling process, termed electroplastic drilling, through the metrics of axial force, and workpiece temperature when machining mild low carbon steel (1008CR steel) and an advanced high strength press hardened steel. A design of experiment (DoE) is conducted on 1008CR steel to determine primary process parameter effects; it is found that electricity can reduce cutting loads at the cost of an increased workpiece temperature. The knowledge generated from the DoE is applied to the advanced high strength steel to evaluate cutting force reduction, process time savings, and tool life improvement at elevated feedrates. It is found that force can be reduced by 50% in high feedrates without observing catastrophic tool failure for up to ten cuts, while tool failure occurs in only a single cut for the no-current condition. Finally, the limitations of the developed model in electroplastic drilling are discussed along with future suggestions for industrialization of the method.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Machlin, E. , 1959, “ Applied Voltage and the Plastic Properties of ‘Brittle’ Rock Salt,” J. Appl. Phys., 30(7), pp. 1109–1110. [CrossRef]
Jones, J. J. , Mears, L. , and Roth, J. T. , 2012, “ Electrically-Assisted Forming of Magnesium AZ31: Effect of Current Magnitude and Deformation Rate on Forgeability,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 134(3), p. 034504. [CrossRef]
Jones, J. J. , and Mears, L. , 2011, “ Constant Current Density Compression Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel and Ti–6Al–4V During Electrically-Assisted Forming,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2011-50287.
Bunget, C. , Salandro, W. , Mears, L. , and Roth, J. T. , 2010, “ Energy-Based Modeling of an Electrically-Assisted Forging Process,” Trans. North Am. Manuf. Res. Inst. SME, 38, pp. 647–654. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bada/0a7d6615977a508e214bb2f5a3c34dde31f7.pdf
Salandro, W. A. , Bunget, C. , and Mears, L. , 2010, “ Modeling and Quantification of the Electroplastic Effect When Bending Stainless Steel Sheet Metal,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2010-34043.
Ruszkiewicz, B. J. , Scriva, C. , Reese, Z. C. , Nikhare, C. P. , Roth, J. T. , and Ragai, I. , 2015, “ Direct Electric Current Spot Treatment's Effect on Springback of 90 Degree Bent 2024-T3 Aluminum,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2015-9433.
Ruszkiewicz, B. J. , Roth, J. T. , and Johnson, D. H. , 2015, “ Locally Applied Direct Electric Current's Effect on Springback of 2024-T3 Aluminum After Single Point Incremental Forming,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2015-9429.
Ross, C. D. , Kronenberger, T. J. , and Roth, J. T. , 2009, “ Effect of DC on the Formability of Ti–6Al–4V,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 131(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Kim, M. , Vinh, N. T. , Yu, H. , Hong, S. , Lee, H. , Kim, M. , Han, H. N. , and Roth, J. T. , 2014, “ Effect of Electric Current Density on the Mechanical Property of Advanced High Strength Steels Under Quasi-Static Tensile Loads,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., 15(6), pp. 1207–1213. [CrossRef]
Perkins, T. A. , Kronenberger, T. J. , and Roth, J. T. , 2007, “ Metallic Forging Using Electrical Flow as an Alternative to Warm/Hot Working,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 129(1), pp. 84–94. [CrossRef]
Roth, J. , Loker, I. , Mauck, D. , Warner, M. , Golovashchenko, S. , and Krause, A. , 2008, “ Enhanced Formability of 5754 Aluminum Sheet Metal Using Electric Pulsing,” Trans. North Am. Manuf. Res. Inst. SME, 36, pp. 405–412. https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/BLCP%3ACN070826031/Enhanced-Formability-of-5754-Aluminum-Sheet-Metal/
Nguyen-Tran, H. , Oh, H. , Hong, S. , Han, H. N. , Cao, J. , Ahn, S. , and Chun, D. , 2015, “ A Review of Electrically-Assisted Manufacturing,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Technol., 2(4), pp. 365–376. [CrossRef]
Ruszkiewicz, B. J. , Grimm, T. , Ragai, I. , Mears, L. , and Roth, J. T. , 2017, “ A Review of Electrically-Assisted Manufacturing With Emphasis on Modeling and Understanding of the Electroplastic Effect,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(11), p. 110801. [CrossRef]
Kinsey, B. , Cullen, G. , Jordan, A. , and Mates, S. , 2013, “ Investigation of Electroplastic Effect at High Deformation Rates for 304SS and Ti–6Al–4V,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 62(1), pp. 279–282. [CrossRef]
Baranov, S. , Staschenko, V. , Sukhov, A. , Troitskiy, O. , and Tyapkin, A. , 2011, “ Electroplastic Metal Cutting,” Russ. Electr. Eng., 82(9), pp. 477–479. [CrossRef]
Jones, E. , Jones, J. J. , and Mears, L. , 2013, “ Empirical Modeling of Direct Electric Current Effect on Machining Cutting Force,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2013-1229.
Ulutan, D. , Pleta, A. , and Mears, L. , 2015, “ Electrically-Assisted Machining of Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V and Nickel-Based Alloy IN-738: An Investigation,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2015-9465.
Egea, A. J. S. , Rojas, H. A. G. , Montaña, C. A. M. , and Echeverri, V. K. , 2015, “ Effect of Electroplastic Cutting on the Manufacturing Process and Surface Properties,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 222, pp. 327–334. [CrossRef]
Merchant, M. E. , 1945, “ Mechanics of the Metal Cutting Process—Part I: Orthogonal Cutting and a Type 2 Chip,” J. Appl. Phys., 16(5), pp. 267–275. [CrossRef]
Tay, A. , Stevenson, M. , de Vahl Davis, G. , and Oxley, P. , 1976, “ A Numerical Method for Calculating Temperature Distributions in Machining, From Force and Shear Angle Measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. Res., 16(4), pp. 335–349. [CrossRef]
Vedantam, K. , Bajaj, D. , Brar, N. , and Hill, S. , 2006, “ Johnson-Cook Strength Models for Mild and Dp 590 Steels,” AIP Conf. Proc., 845(1), p. 775.
Hameed, S. , Rojas, H. A. G. , Egea, A. J. S. , and Alberro, A. N. , 2016, “ Electroplastic Cutting Influence on Power Consumption During Drilling Process,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 87(5–8), pp. 1835–1841. [CrossRef]
Davidson, S. R. , and James, D. F. , 2003, “ Drilling in Bone: Modeling Heat Generation and Temperature Distribution,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(3), pp. 305–314. [CrossRef]
Kalpakjian, S. , and Schmid, S. R. , 2008, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of an electrically assisted drilling setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Main effects plot for axial force during EA drilling of 1008CR steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Axial force and temperature comparison for three sequential drilling operations conducted at 300 A, 350 RPM, and 25.4 mm/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Main effects plot for maximum temperature in EA drilling of 1008CR steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature comparison for: (a) 300 A, (b) 150 A, and (c) 0 A in different drilling conditions of 1008CR steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Example of nodal setup for a single element in a 2D explicit finite volume heat transfer model, viewed from the top

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Four contact segments for drilling of thin sheets where tapered bit length is less than the sheet thickness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Model versus experiment for maximum temperature and axial force during EA drilling of 1008CR steel at 350 RPM and 12.7 mm/min for (a) 300 A, (b) 150 A, and (c) 0 A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature contour comparison between model and thermal camera experimental data for 1008CR steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Main effects plot for maximum axial force during electroplastic drilling of PHS1500

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Axial force comparison for different current magnitudes: (a) 50.8 mm/min first cut, (b) 50.8 mm/min third cut, (c) 101.6 mm/min first cut, and (d) 101.6 mm/min third cut. Cut 1 is shown for the first and third cuts for 50.8 mm/min due to failure. Cut 2 is shown for 0 A third cut at 101.6 mm/min due to bit failure on the second cut.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Main effects plot for maximum temperature during electroplastic drilling of PHS1500

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Temperature comparison for different current magnitudes: (a) 50.8 mm/min first cut, (b) 50.8 mm/min third cut, (c) 101.6 mm/min first cut, and (d) 101.6 mm/min third cut. Cut 1 shown for the first and third cuts for 50.8 mm/min due to failure on the first cut. Cut 2 shown for 0A third cut at 101.6 mm/min due to bit failure on the second cut.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Axial force results for 3 sequential cuts for (a) 0 A 50.8 mm/min, (b) 300 A 50.8 mm/min, (c) 600 A 50.8 mm/min, (d) 0A 101.6 mm/min, (e) 300 A 101.6 mm/min, and (f) 600 A 101.6 mm/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Axial force results for cutting to failure for: (a) 300A 50.8 mm/min, (b) 600 A 50.8 mm/min, (c) 300 A 101.6 mm/min, and (d) 600 A 101.6 mm/min

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In