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Research Papers

Drilling CFRP Laminates by Dual-Axis Grinding Wheel System With Copper/Diamond Functionally Graded Grinding Wheel

[+] Author and Article Information
Takahiro Kunimine

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Science and Engineering,
Kanazawa University,
Kakuma-machi,
Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan;
Graduate School of Engineering,
Nagoya Institute of Technology,
Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku,
Nagoya 466-8555, Japan
e-mails: kunimine@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp;
kuniminet9@gmail.com

Hideaki Tsuge, Daisuke Ogawa

Industrial Research Institute of Gifu Prefecture,
Oze 1288,
Seki 501-3265, Japan

Motoko Yamada, Hisashi Sato, Yoshimi Watanabe

Graduate School of Engineering,
Nagoya Institute of Technology,
Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku,
Nagoya 466-8555, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 31, 2017; final manuscript received March 3, 2018; published online May 11, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Kai Cheng.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(7), 071011 (May 11, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4039650 History: Received March 31, 2017; Revised March 03, 2018

This study aims to investigate the drilling performance of a copper/diamond functionally graded grinding wheel (FGGW) fabricated by centrifugal sintered-casting for carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates by originally designed dual-axis grinding wheel (DAGW) system. The copper/diamond FGGW was also originally designed and fabricated by the centrifugal sintered-casting to suppress abrasive-grain wear and reduce the consumption of abrasive grains in our previous study. Drilling tests were carried out over 50 holes in dry machining. Thrust force was evaluated with force sensor during drilling test. Hole diameter, roundness, and roughness were measured to assess hole quality. Drill chips were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate chip morphology. Precision drilling without burring and delamination was achieved in CFRP laminates. Good hole-quality was still obtained over 50 holes due to the low thrust force during drilling. Specific three-dimensional (3D) drilling process of the DAGW system enabled stable and precision drilling with low thrust force in CFRP laminates continuously.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic illustration showing the DAGW system based on spindle and wheel rotation axis equipped with a FGGW

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Fig. 2

The motion trails of single abrasive grain as a function of time t with the condition: a radius of grinding wheel of 10 mm, a feed rate of 0 mm/min, a wheel rotation speed of7000 rpm, and a spindle rotation speed (tool rotation speed) of 2800 rpm in the DAGW system of (a) 3D view and (b) two-dimensional view from viewpoint of z-axis

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Fig. 3

The appearance of the DAGW system

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Fig. 4

Photographs of side views of holes having a diameter of 20 mm and a thickness of 5 mm in a CFRP laminates drilled by the DAGW system. The grid size indicates 10 mm. These holes were drilled at feed rates of 5 mm/min for the 1st to the 50th holes and 10 mm/min for the 51st hole. The numbers on the top left corner of each photo indicate the drilled hole numbers.

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Fig. 5

Photographs of (a) the entry and (b) the exit side of holes in CFRP laminates drilled by the DAGW system. The grid size indicates 10 mm. These holes were drilled at feed rates of 5 mm/min for the 1st to the 50th holes and 10 mm/min for the 51st hole. The numbers on the top left corner of each photo indicate the drilled hole numbers.

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Fig. 6

Thrust force as a function of time during drilling of the eighth hole by the DAGW system at a feed rate of 5 mm/min

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Fig. 7

The maximum thrust force as a function of the number of holes during drilling by the DAGW system

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Fig. 8

Average thrust force as a function of the number of holes during drilling by the DAGW system

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Fig. 9

Grinding wheels after drilling (a) the 1st and (b) the 51th holes and microscopic images of the surface of the grinding wheel after drilling (c) the 1st, and (d) the 51th holes

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Fig. 10

Hole diameter as a function of the number of holes drilled by the DAGW system. These holes were drilled at feed rates of 5 mm/min for the 1st to the 50th holes and 10 mm/min for the 51st hole.

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Fig. 11

Roundness of the drilled holes as a function of the number of holes drilled by the DAGW system. These holes were drilled at feed rates of 5 mm/min for the 1st to the 50th holes and 10 mm/min for the 51st hole.

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Fig. 12

Arithmetic average roughness as a function of the number of holes drilled by the DAGW system. These holes were drilled at feed rates of 5 mm/min for the 1st to the 50th holes and 10 mm/min for the 51st hole.

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Fig. 13

A photograph of macroscopic machining-chips obtained by the DAGW system. Machining chips were processed as powder-like chips.

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Fig. 14

Scanning electron microscope images of (a) microscopic machining-chips and (b) carbon fibers obtained from the eighth hole. Epoxy resin matrix was observed as white color.

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Fig. 15

A schematic illustration showing the drilling process of the DAGW system and the formation of machining chips of CFRP laminate

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Fig. 16

A schematic illustration showing the relationships between machining force and thrust force related to the tool geometries during drilling by (a) a standard drill bit, (b) a triple point angle drill bit, and (c) the DAGW system

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