0
Research Papers

Linear-Time Thermal Simulation of As-Manufactured Fused Deposition Modeling Components

[+] Author and Article Information
Yaqi Zhang

Spatial Automation Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: zhang623@wisc.edu

Vadim Shapiro

Spatial Automation Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: vshapiro@wisc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 16, 2017; final manuscript received February 9, 2018; published online April 4, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Qiang Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(7), 071002 (Apr 04, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1517; doi: 10.1115/1.4039556 History: Received August 16, 2017; Revised February 09, 2018

Like many other additive manufacturing (AM) processes, fused deposition modeling (FDM) process is driven by a moving heat source, and temperature history plays an important role in determining the mechanical properties and geometry of the final parts. Thermal simulation of FDM is challenging due to geometric complexity of manufacturing process and inherent computational complexity which requires numerical solution at every time increment of the process. We describe a new approach to thermal simulation of the FDM process, formulated as an explicit finite difference method that is applied directly on as-manufactured model described by a typical manufacturing process plan. The thermal model accounts for most relevant thermal effects including heat convection and radiation to the environment, heat conduction with build platform and between adjacent roads (and adjacent layers). We show that the proposed simulation method achieves linear time complexity both theoretically and numerically. This implies that the simulation not only scales to handle three-dimensional (3D) printed components of arbitrary complexity but also can achieve real-time performance. The approach is fully implemented, validated against known analytic solutions, and is tested on realistic complex shapes.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sun, Q. , Rizvi, G. , Bellehumeur, C. , and Gu, P. , 2003, “ Experimental Study of the Cooling Characteristics of Polymer Filaments in FDM and Impact on the Mesostructures and Properties of Prototypes,” 14th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SSF), Austin, TX, Aug. 4–6, pp. 170–178.
Zhang, Y. , and Chou, Y. K. , 2006, “ A Parametric Study of Part Distortions in FDM Using 3D FEA,” 17th Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SSF), Austin, TX, Aug. 14–16, pp. 410–420.
Liu, X. , and Shapiro, V. , 2016, “ Homogenization of Material Properties in Additively Manufactured Structures,” Comput.-Aided Des., 78, pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Vasudevarao, B. , Natarajan, D. P. , Henderson, M. , and Razdan, A. , 2000, “ Sensitivity of RP Surface Finish to Process Parameter Variation,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings (SSF), Austin, TX, Aug. 7–9, pp. 251–258.
Turner, B. N. , Strong, R. , and Gold, S. A. , 2014, “ A Review of Melt Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes—I: Process Design and Modeling,” Rapid Prototyping J., 20(3), pp. 192–204. [CrossRef]
Thomas, J. , and Rodriguez, J. , 2000, Modeling the Fracture Strength Between Fused Deposition Extruded Roads, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Bellehumeur, C. , Li, L. , Sun, Q. , and Gu, P. , 2004, “ Modeling of Bond Formation Between Polymer Filaments in the Fused Deposition Modeling Process,” J. Manuf. Process, 6(2), pp. 170–178. [CrossRef]
Sun, Q. , Rizvi, G. , Bellehumeur, C. , and Gu, P. , 2008, “ Effect of Processing Conditions on the Bonding Quality of FDM Polymer Filaments,” Rapid Prototyping J., 14(2), pp. 72–80. [CrossRef]
Costa, S. F. , Duarte, F. M. , and Covas, J. A. , 2008, “ Towards Modelling of Free Form Extrusion: Analytical Solution of Transient Heat Transfer,” Int. J. Mater. Form., 1(S1), pp. 703–706. [CrossRef]
Costa, S. F. , Duarte, F. M. , and Covas, J. A. , 2015, “ Thermal Conditions Affecting Heat Transfer in FDM/FFE: A Contribution Towards the Numerical Modelling of the Process,” Virtual Phys. Prototyping, 10(1), pp. 35–46. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , and Chou, Y. , 2006, “ Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Simulations of the Fused Deposition Modelling Process,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 220(10), pp. 1663–1671. [CrossRef]
Ji, L. B. , and Zhou, T. R. , 2010, “ Finite Element Simulation of Temperature Field in Fused Deposition Modeling,” Adv. Mater. Res., 97–101, pp. 2585–2588. [CrossRef]
Yardimci, A., M. , and Geri, S. , 1996, “ Conceptual Framework for the Thermal Process Modelling of Fused Deposition,” Rapid Prototyping J., 2(2), pp. 26–31. [CrossRef]
Yardimci , A. M., Hattori , T., Guceri , S. , and Danforth, S. , 1997, “ Thermal Analysis of Fused Deposition,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Conference (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 11–13, pp. 689–698.
Zeng, K. , Pal, D. , and Stucker, B. , 2012, “ A Review of Thermal Analysis Methods in Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 6–8, pp. 796–814.
Krishnakumar, A. , Suresh, K. , and Chandrasekar, A. , 2015, “ Towards Assembly-Free Methods for Additive Manufacturing Simulation,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46356.
Romano, J. , Ladani, L. , and Sadowski, M. , 2015, “ Thermal Modeling of Laser Based Additive Manufacturing Processes Within Common Materials,” Procedia Manuf., 1, pp. 238–250. [CrossRef]
McCarthy, B. , 2015, “ Characterization of Geometric Deviations in FDM,” M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Sutherland, I. E. , and Hodgman, G. W. , 1974, “ Reentrant Polygon Clipping,” Commun. ACM, 17(1), pp. 32–42. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P. , and DeWitt, D. P. , 1996, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York.
Rodriguez, J. F. , Thomas, J. P. , and Renaud, J. E. , 2000, “ Characterization of the Mesostructure of Fused-Deposition Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Materials,” Rapid Prototyping J., 6(3), pp. 175–186. [CrossRef]
Recktenwald, G. W. , 2004, “ Finite-Difference Approximations to the Heat Equation,” Mech. Eng., 10, pp. 1–27.
LeVeque, R. J. , 1992, Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws, Springer Science & Business Media, Cham, Switzerland. [CrossRef]
Li, L. , Sun, Q. , Bellehumeur, C. , and Gu, P. , 2001, “ Composite Modeling and Analysis of FDM Prototypes for Design and Fabrication of Functionally Graded Parts,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 6–8, pp. 187–194.
Rosenzweig, N. , and Narkis, M. , 1981, “ Sintering Rheology of Amorphous Polymers,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 21(17), pp. 1167–1170. [CrossRef]
Wang, T.-M. , Xi, J.-T. , and Jin, Y. , 2007, “ A Model Research for Prototype Warp Deformation in the FDM Process,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 33(11–12), pp. 1087–1096. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of deposition of a road in FDM process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Diagram of a single road

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Different thermal effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Discretization of a single layer part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Microphotograph of the cross-sectional area of a FDM part, where W is the road's width, H is the layer height, and 2y is the neck length between adjacent roads within the same layer [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional shape of road

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Top view of contacts between the road elements in the same layer: adjacent parallel roads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Top view of contacts between the road elements in the same layer: end-road contact (L′=W)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Top view of contact between two road elements in vertically adjacent layers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Illustration of interacting road elements in a given time-step of the proposed numerical scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Active body At=Atempt∪Aspatt

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of simulation (Δt=0.1s) results with the analytic solution from Ref. [7]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Tool path model of the octopus part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Influence of active body on simulation time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Influence of active body on computation results of octopus part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Influence of active body on computation results of the “mobius arm” part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

3D model of a “mobius arm” part (Courtesy of Stratasys, Ltd.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Influence of active body on computation results of an aerospace rocker

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

3D model of an aerospace rocker (Courtesy of Stratasys, Ltd.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Tool path of the “mobius arm” part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Snapshots of thermal simulation for the manufacturing of mobius arm part; color indicates the temperature

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In