0
Research Papers

Automatic Toolpath Generation for Heterogeneous Objects Manufactured by Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinyi Xiao

Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16801
e-mail: xfx5020@psu.edu

Sanjay Joshi

Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16801
e-mail: sbj4@psu.edu

Manuscript received August 7, 2017; final manuscript received February 20, 2018; published online April 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sam Anand.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(7), 071005 (Apr 06, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1503; doi: 10.1115/1.4039491 History: Received August 07, 2017; Revised February 20, 2018

A heterogeneous object (HO) refers to a solid component consisting of two or more material primitives distributed either continuously or discontinuously within the object. HOs are commonly divided into three categories. The first category has distinct material domains separating the different materials. The second, called functionally graded materials (FGMs), has continuous variation of material composition that produces gradient in material properties. The third category allows for any combinations of the first two categories within the same part. Modeling and manufacturing of HOs has recently generated more interest due to the advent of additive manufacturing (AM) technology that makes it possible to build such parts. Directed energy deposition (DED) processes have the potential for depositing multiple powdered materials in various compositions in the process of creating a single layer of material. To make this possible, tool paths that provide proper positioning of the deposition head and proper control over the material composition are required. This paper presents an approach for automatically generating the toolpath for any type of HO considering the material composition changes that are required on each layer. The toolpath generation takes into account the physical limitations of the machine associated with powder delivery and ability to continually grade the materials. Simulation results using the toolpath generation methodology are demonstrated by several example parts.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hofmann, D. C. , Roberts, S. , Otis, R. , Kolodziejska, J. , Dillon, R. P. , Suh, J.-o. , Shapiro, A. A. , Liu, Z.-K. , and Borgonia, J.-P. , 2014, “ Developing Gradient Metal Alloys Through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing,” Sci. Rep., 4(1), p. 5357.
Chen, M. , and Tucker, J. V. , 2000, “ Constructive Volume Geometry,” Comput. Graph. Forum, 19(4), pp. 281–293. [CrossRef]
Shammaa, M. H. , Suzuki, H. , and Ohtake, Y. , 2008, “ Extraction of Isosurfaces From Multimaterial CT Volumetric Data of Mechanical Parts,” ACM Symposium on Solid and Physical Modeling, New York, June 2–4, pp. 213–220.
Theisel, H. , 2002, “ Exact Isosurfaces for Marching Cubes,” Comput. Graph. Forum, 21(1), pp. 19–31. [CrossRef]
Hongmei, Z. , Zhigang, L. , and Bingheng, L. , 2009, “ Heterogeneous Object Modeling Based on Multi-Color Distance Field,” Mater. Des., 30(4), pp. 939–946. [CrossRef]
Xu, A. , and Shaw, L. L. , 2005, “ Equal Distance Offset Approach to Representing and Process Planning for Solid Freeform Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials,” Comput.-Aided Des., 37(12), pp. 1308–1318. [CrossRef]
Zhou, M. Y. , Xi, J. T. , and Yan, J. Q. , 2004, “ Modeling and Processing of Functionally Graded Materials for Rapid Prototyping,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 146(3), pp. 396–402. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. C. L. , 2011, “ Computing on Rays: A Parallel Approach for Surface Mesh Modeling From Multi-Material Volumetric Data,” Comput. Ind., 62(7), pp. 660–671. [CrossRef]
Siu, Y. K. , and Tan, S. T. , 2002, “ Source-Based Heterogeneous Solid Modeling,” Comput. Aided Des., 34(1), pp. 41–55. [CrossRef]
Qian, X. , and Dutta, D. , 2003, “ Physics-Based Modeling for Heterogeneous Objects,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 125(3), pp. 416–427. [CrossRef]
Yang, P. , and Qian, X. , 2007, “ A B-Spline-Based Approach to Heterogeneous Objects Design and Analysis,” Comput. Aided Des., 39(2), pp. 95–111. [CrossRef]
Kou, X. Y. , Parks, G. T. , and Tan, S. T. , 2012, “ Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Materials Using a Procedural Model and Particle Swarm Optimization,” Comput.-Aided Des., 44(4), pp. 300–310. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z. , and Joshi, S. , 2017, “ Slice Data Representation and Format for Multi-Material Objects for Additive Manufacturing Processes,” Rapid Prototyping J., 23(1), pp. 149–161.
Jin, Y.-A. , He, Y. , Fu, J.-z. , Gan, W.-f. , and Lin, Z.-w. , 2014, “ Optimization of Tool-Path Generation for Material Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing Technology,” Addit. Manuf., 1–4, pp. 32–47. [CrossRef]
Muller, P. , Hascoet, J.-Y. , and Mognol, P ., 2014, “ Toolpaths for Additive Manufacturing of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) Parts,” Rapid Prototyping J., 20(6), pp. 511–522. [CrossRef]
Qiu, D. , Langrana, N. A. , Danforth, S. C. , Safari, A. , and Jafari, M. , 2001, “ Intelligent Toolpath for Extrusion-Based LM Process,” Rapid Prototyping J., 7(1), pp. 18–23. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. H. , and Zhu, W. K. , 2010, “ A Dynamic Priority-Based Approach to Concurrent Toolpath Planning for Multi-Material Layered Manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Des., 42(12), pp. 1095–1107. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. H. , 2008, “ Efficient Concurrent Toolpath Planning for Multi-Material Layered Manufacturing,” 19th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, July 28–29, pp. 429–440.
Majumdar, J. D. , Manna, I. , Kumar, A. , Bhargava, P. , and Nath, A. K. , 2009, “ Direct Laser Cladding of Co on Ti-6Al-4V With a Compositionally Graded Interface,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(5), pp. 2237–2243. [CrossRef]
Zho, H.-M. , and Wang, Z.-Y. , 2016, “ Distance-Field-Based Layered Manufacturing of FGM Objects,” Second Annual International Conference on Advanced Material Engineering (AME), Hubei, China, Apr. 15–17, pp. 721–725.
Choi, S. H. , and Cheung, H. H. , 2005, “ A Multi-Material Virtual Prototyping System,” Comput. Aided Des., 37(1), pp. 123–136. [CrossRef]
Morvan, S. , Fadel, G. M. , Love, J. , and Keicher, D. , 2001, “ Manufacturing of a Heterogeneous Flywheel on a LENS Apparatus,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 6–8, pp. 553–560.
Nassar, A. R. , Starr, B. , and Reutzel, E. W. , 2015, “ Process Monitoring of Directed-Energy Deposition of Inconel-718 Via Plume Imaging,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 10–12, pp. 284–294.
Laser Deposition Technology, 2018, “ Laser Deposition Technology—Additive Manufacturing,” RPM Innovations, Rapid City, SD, accessed Mar. 27, 2018, http://www.rpm-innovations.com/laser-deposition-technology-overview

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Direct energy deposition process scheme [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

FGM representation varied in dimensional linear, nonlinear change in material distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Three categories of HO parts: (a) discrete multimaterial part, (b) linear FGM part, and (c) FGM part with partial heterogeneous material part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Slice representation of a hook with material changing in 2D plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Toolpath in one slice: (a) linear, (b) zigzag, and (c) contour [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Type I, scheme of laser deposition process [1] and (b) type II, scheme of LENS powder feeding process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Toolpath generation flowchart

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) and (b): 2D radial material change from the center (3D model and one slice view) and (c) and (d): Materials distributed with distinct boundary (3D model and one slice view)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Examples of choosing different staring points on first slice

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Algorithm of calculating next pixel laser traveling time and material switch time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Algorithm of choosing next optimal pixel position when the laser stops and the nozzle repositions itself without depositing materials

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) FGM part with linear material gradient along with x-axis and (b) single slice view along with XY plane in Z height = 0.5 in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Discrete multimaterial part with two materials in diffusion reaction pattern and (b) Single slice view along with XY plane in Z height = 0.1 in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) FGM part has two directions of material gradients with a homogenous material section and (b) single slice view along with XZ plane in Y-axis = 0.5 in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) FGM cylinder with material change radically and (b) single slice view along with XY plane in Z-axis = 0.2 in

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Toolpath in XY slice for FGM part shown in Fig. 12

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Toolpath in circle with rapid laser travel speed = 500 mm/s, switching material time = 11.2 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Toolpath in circle with rapid laser travel speed = 100 mm/s, switching material time = 11.2 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Toolpath in XY slice for HO part shown in Fig. 13

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Toolpath shown in circle in Fig. 19

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Toolpath in YZ slice for FGM part shown in Fig. 14

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Toolpath shown in circle in Fig. 21 at laser scanning speed = 40 mm/s and fast traveling speed = 200 mm/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Toolpath shown in circle in Fig. 21 at laser scanning speed = 60 mm/s and fast traveling speed = 150 mm/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Toolpath in XY slice for FGM part shown in Fig. 15

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Cylinder with two hollow cylinders slice view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Toolpath generation for the slice shown in Fig. 25

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In