Automatic Toolpath Generation for Heterogeneous Objects Manufactured by Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinyi Xiao

The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University Park, 16801

Sanjay Joshi

The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University Park, 16801

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4039491 History: Received August 07, 2017; Revised February 20, 2018


A heterogeneous object (HO) refers to a solid component consisting of two or more material primitives distributed either continuously or discontinuously within the object. HOs are commonly divided into three categories. The first category has distinct material domains separating the different materials. The second, called functionally graded materials (FGMs), has continuous variation of material composition that produces gradient in material properties. The third category allows for any combinations of the first two categories within the same part. Modeling and manufacturing of HOs has come to attention recently due to the advent of additive manufacturing (AM) technology that makes it possible to build such parts. Directed energy deposition processes have the potential for depositing multiple powdered materials in various compositions in the process of creating a single layer of material. To make this possible, tool paths that provide proper positioning of the deposition head and proper control over the material composition are required. This paper presents an approach for automatically generating the toolpath for any type of HO considering the material composition changes that are required on each layer. The toolpath generation takes into account the physical limitations of the machine associated with powder delivery and ability to continually grade the materials. Simulation results use the toolpath generation methodology is demonstrated by several example parts. Key words: Heterogeneous object, Functionally graded material, toolpath, Additve Manufacturing, Direct Energy Deposition

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