0
Research Papers

Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Inconel 718 Parts: Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization

[+] Author and Article Information
Fuda Ning

Mem. ASME
Department of Industrial, Manufacturing and
Systems Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: fuda.ning@ttu.edu

Yingbin Hu

Mem. ASME
Department of Industrial, Manufacturing and
Systems Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: yingbin.hu@ttu.edu

Zhichao Liu

Department of Industrial, Manufacturing and
Systems Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: zhichao.liu@ttu.edu

Xinlin Wang

Department of Industrial, Manufacturing and
Systems Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: xinlin.wang@ttu.edu

Yuzhou Li

School of Electromechanical Engineering,
Guangdong University of Technology,
Guangzhou 510006, China
e-mail: medlyz@gdut.edu.cn

Weilong Cong

Mem. ASME
Department of Industrial,
Manufacturing and Systems Engineering,
Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409
e-mail: weilong.cong@ttu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 15, 2017; final manuscript received February 17, 2018; published online April 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sam Anand.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061012 (Apr 02, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1439; doi: 10.1115/1.4039441 History: Received July 15, 2017; Revised February 17, 2018

Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) has become a promising technology in direct manufacturing or repairing of high-performance metal parts. Investigations on LENS manufacturing of Inconel 718 (IN718) parts have been conducted for potential applications in the aircraft turbine component manufacturing or repairing. Fabrication defects, such as pores and heterogeneous microstructures, are inevitably induced in the parts, affecting part qualities and mechanical properties. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate a high-efficiency LENS process for the high-quality IN718 part fabrication. Ultrasonic vibration has been implemented into various melting material solidification processes for part performance improvements. However, there is a lack of studies on the utilization of ultrasonic vibration in LENS process for IN718 part manufacturing. In this paper, ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) LENS process is, thus, proposed to fabricate IN718 parts for the potential reduction of fabrication defects. Experimental investigations are conducted to study the effects of ultrasonic vibration on microstructures and mechanical properties of LENS-fabricated parts under two levels of laser power. The results showed that ultrasonic vibration could reduce the mean porosity to 0.1%, refine the microstructure with an average grain size of 5 μm, and fragment the detrimental Laves precipitated phase into small particles in a uniform distribution, thus enhancing yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), microhardness, and wear resistance of the fabricated IN718 parts.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Zhong, C. L. , Gasser, A. , Kittel, J. , Wissenbach, K. , and Poprawe, R. , 2016, “ Improvement of Material Performance of Inconel 718 Formed by High Deposition-Rate Laser Metal Deposition,” Mater. Des., 98, pp. 128–134. [CrossRef]
Jia, Q. B. , and Gu, D. D. , 2014, “ Selective Laser Melting Additive Manufacturing of Inconel 718 Superalloy Parts: Densification, Microstructure and Properties,” J. Alloy. Compd., 585, pp. 713–721. [CrossRef]
Li, S. S. , Wu, Y. B. , Fujimoto, M. , and Nomura, M. , 2016, “ Improving the Working Surface Condition of Electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride Grinding Quill in Surface Grinding of Inconel 718 by the Assistance of Ultrasonic Vibration,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(7), p. 071008. [CrossRef]
Irwin, J. , Reutzel, E. W. , Michaleris, P. , Keist, J. , and Nassar, A. R. , 2016, “ Predicting Microstructure From Thermal History During Additive Manufacturing for Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(11), p. 111007. [CrossRef]
Gu, D. D. , Meiners, W. , Wissenbach, K. , and Poprawe, R. , 2012, “ Laser Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components: Materials, Processes and Mechanisms,” Int. Mater. Rev., 57(3), pp. 133–164. [CrossRef]
Gu, D. D. , Cao, S. N. , and Lin, K. J. , 2017, “ Laser Metal Deposition Additive Manufacturing of TiC Reinforced Inconel 625 Composites: Influence of the Additive TiC Particle and Its Starting Size,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(4), p. 041014. [CrossRef]
Thomas, D. S. , and Gilbert, S. W. , 2014, “Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review and Discussion,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, Publication No. 1176.
Laureijs, R. E. , Roca, J. B. , Narra, S. P. , Montgomery, C. , Beuth, J. L. , and Fuchs, E. R. , 2017, “ Metal Additive Manufacturing: Cost Competitive Beyond Low Volumes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(8), p. 081010. [CrossRef]
Parimi, L. L. , Ravi, G. A. , Clark, D. , and Attallah, M. M. , 2014, “ Microstructural and Texture Development in Direct Laser Fabricated IN718,” Mater. Charact., 89, pp. 102–111. [CrossRef]
Tabernero, I. , Lamikiz, A. , Martínez, S. , Ukar, E. , and Figueras, J. , 2011, “ Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Inconel 718 Components Built by Laser Cladding,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manu, 51(6), pp. 465–470. [CrossRef]
Liu, F. C. , Lin, X. , Yang, G. L. , Song, M. H. , Chen, J. , and Huang, W. D. , 2011, “ Microstructure and Residual Stress of Laser Rapid Formed Inconel 718 Nickel-Base Superalloy,” Opt. Laser Technol., 43(1), pp. 208–213. [CrossRef]
Zhao, X. , Chen, J. , Lin, X. , and Huang, W. , 2008, “ Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Rapid Forming Inconel 718,” Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 478(1–2), pp. 119–124. [CrossRef]
Qi, H. , Azer, M. , and Ritter, A. , 2009, “ Studies of Standard Heat Treatment Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Net Shape Manufactured Inconel 718,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 40(10), pp. 2410–2422. [CrossRef]
Lambarri, J. , Leunda, J. , Navas, V. G. , Soriano, C. , and Sanz, C. , 2013, “ Microstructural and Tensile Characterization of Inconel 718 Laser Coatings for Aeronautic Components,” Opt. Laser. Eng, 51(7), pp. 813–821. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , and Li, X. C. , 2007, “ Ultrasonic Cavitation-Based Nanomanufacturing of Bulk Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 129(3), pp. 252–255. [CrossRef]
Cao, G. P. , Konishi, H. , and Li, X. C. , 2008, “ Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Mg/SiC Nanocomposites Fabricated by Ultrasonic Cavitation Based Nanomanufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(3), p. 031105. [CrossRef]
Sun, Q. J. , Lin, S. B. , Yang, C. L. , and Zhao, G. Q. , 2009, “ Penetration Increase of AISI 304 Using Ultrasonic Assisted Tungsten Inert Gas Welding,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 14(8), pp. 765–767. [CrossRef]
Watanabe, T. , Shiroki, M. , Yanagisawa, A. , and Sasaki, T. , 2010, “ Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metal by Ultrasonic Vibration,” J. Mater. Process. Tech, 210(12), pp. 1646–1651. [CrossRef]
Yang, M. X. , Zheng, H. , Qi, B. J. , and Yang, Z. , 2017, “ Microstructure and Fatigue Property of Ti–6Al–4V by Ultrahigh Frequency Pulse Welding,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(4), p. 041015. [CrossRef]
Komarov, S. V. , Kuwabara, M. , and Abramov, O. V. , 2005, “ High Power Ultrasonics in Pyrometallurgy: Current Status and Recent Development,” ISIJ Int., 45(12), pp. 1765–1782. [CrossRef]
Ning, F. D. , and Cong, W. L. , 2016, “ Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Fe-Cr Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated by Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process,” Mater. Lett., 179, pp. 61–64. [CrossRef]
Cong, W. L. , and Ning, F. D. , 2017, “ A Fundamental Investigation on Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Stainless Steel,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 121, pp. 61–69. [CrossRef]
Wu, D. J. , Guo, M. H. , Ma, G. Y. , and Niu, F. Y. , 2015, “ Dilution Characteristics of Ultrasonic Assisted Laser Clad Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coating,” Mater. Lett., 141, pp. 207–209. [CrossRef]
Yan, S. , Wu, D. J. , Niu, F. Y. , Ma, G. Y. , and Kang, R. K. , 2017, “ Al2O3-ZrO2 Eutectic Ceramic Via Ultrasonic-Assisted Laser Engineered Net Shaping,” Ceram. Int., 43(17), pp. 15905–15910. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2013, “Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM E112-13.
ASTM, 2009, “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. ASTM E8/E8M-09.
Xu, H. , Jian, X. , Meek, T. T. , and Han, Q. , 2004, “ Degassing of Molten Aluminum A356 Alloy Using Ultrasonic Vibration,” Mater. Lett., 58(29), pp. 3669–3673. [CrossRef]
Shao, S. , Mahtabi, M. J. , Shamsaei, N. , and Thompson, S. M. , 2017, “ Solubility of Argon in Laser Additive Manufactured α-Titanium Under Hot Isostatic Pressing Condition,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 131, pp. 209–219. [CrossRef]
Wang, F. , Eskin, D. , Mi, J. , Connolley, T. , Lindsay, J. , and Mounib, M. , 2016, “ A Refining Mechanism of Primary Al3Ti Intermetallic Particles by Ultrasonic Treatment in the Liquid State,” Acta. Mater., 116, pp. 354–363. [CrossRef]
Chen, R. R. , Zheng, D. S. , Ma, T. F. , Ding, H. S. , Su, Y. Q. , Guo, J. J. , and Fu, H. Z. , 2017, “ Effects of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Alloying TiAl,” Sci. Rep., 7, pp. 41463–41477. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gäumann, M. , Bezencon, C. , Canalis, P. , and Kurz, W. , 2001, “ Single-Crystal Laser Deposition of Superalloys: Processing-Microstructure Maps,” Acta. Mater., 49(6), pp. 1051–1062. [CrossRef]
Liu, F. , Lin, X. , Leng, H. , Cao, J. , Liu, Q. , Huang, C. , and Huang, W. , 2013, “ Microstructural Changes in a Laser Solid Forming Inconel 718 Superalloy Thin Wall in the Deposition Direction,” Opt. Laser Technol., 45, pp. 330–335. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z. , Guan, K. , Gao, M. , Li, X. , Chen, X. , and Zeng, X. , 2012, “ The Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Deposited-IN718 by Selective Laser Melting,” J. Alloy. Compd., 513, pp. 518–523. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The intercept method for grain size measurement based on the ASTM E112-13 standard

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of porosity of fabricated IN718 parts and (b) porosity analysis/calculation using image processing technique

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of ultrasonic vibration-assisted LENS system setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Designed tensile specimen based on ASTM E8 standard: (a) dimensions of tensile specimen and (b) tensile samples fabricated by LENS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Microstructural characteristics and (b) grain size evolution under different processing conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Processed SEM images for calculating porosity and (b) porosity values under different fabrication conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparisons on (a) stress–strain curve, (b) yield strength, (c) UTS, and (d) ductility of LENS-fabricated IN718 parts under different processing conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effects of grain size on yield strength and UTS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Vickers microhardness measurement on the transverse surface of the fabricated parts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis results of IN718 parts fabricated by LENS (a) without ultrasonic vibration and (b) with ultrasonic vibration at the laser power of 350 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The phase morphology at different sections of IN 718 parts fabricated by LENS (a) without ultrasonic vibration and (b) with ultrasonic vibration at laser power of 270 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The phase morphology at different sections of IN718 parts fabricated by LENS (a) without ultrasonic vibration and (b) with ultrasonic vibration at laser power of 350 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

A comparison on the width of IN718 parts after dry sliding under different fabrication conditions

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In