Research Papers

Air-Diffusion-Channel Constrained Surface Based Stereolithography for Three-Dimensional Printing of Objects With Wide Solid Cross Sections

[+] Author and Article Information
Haiyang He, Jie Xu

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
The University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, IL 60607

Yayue Pan

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
The University of Illinois at Chicago,
2039 Engineering Research Facility,
842 W. Taylor Street,
Chicago, IL 60607
e-mail: yayuepan@uic.edu

Alan Feinerman

Department of Electrical and Computer
The University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, IL 60607

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2017; final manuscript received February 14, 2018; published online April 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sam Anand.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061011 (Apr 02, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1385; doi: 10.1115/1.4039440 History: Received June 21, 2017; Revised February 14, 2018

Oxygen inhibition has been proved capable of reducing the separation force and enabling successful prints in constrained surface vat photopolymerization (CSVP) based three-dimensional (3D) printing processes. It has also been demonstrated as a key factor that determines the feasibility of the newly developed CSVP-based continuous 3D printing systems, such as the continuous liquid interface production. Despite its well-known importance, it is still largely unknown regarding how to control and enhance the oxygen inhibition in CSVP. To close this knowledge gap, this paper investigates the constrained surface design, which allows for continuous and sufficient air permeation to enhance the oxygen inhibition in CSVP systems. In this paper, a novel constrained surface with air-diffusion-channel is proposed. The influences of the air-diffusion-channel design parameters on the robustness of the constrained surface, the light transmission rate, and light intensity uniformity are studied. The thickness of the oxygen inhibition layer associated with the proposed constrained surface is studied analytically and experimentally. Experimental results show that the proposed air-diffusion-channel design is effective in maintaining and enhancing the oxygen-inhibition effect, and thus can increase the solid cross section size of printable parts.

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Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the air-diffusion-channel design in PDMS-based constrained window

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Fig. 2

(a) Microscopic images of the side view of the prepared air-diffusion-channel samples. Scale bar: 1 mm; (b) top view of a air-diffusion-channel sample coated with PDMS. Scale bar: 5 mm; (c) a prepared liquid vat with air-diffusion-channel-based constrained surface on the bottom. Scale bar: 1 in.

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Fig. 3

(a) Illustration of the bonding force test setup, (b) experimental setup for bonding force testing before the test, and (c) photo of the bonding force testing setup when the PDMS coating was separated from the bottom substrate

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Fig. 4

Bonding force measurement for three different constrained surface designs

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Fig. 5

Optical power measurement results

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Fig. 6

Light uniformity for different air-diffution-channel designs

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Fig. 7

Schematic of oxygen inhibition layer thickness measurement procedure

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Fig. 8

Results for oxygen inhibition layer thickness measurement

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Fig. 9

Schematic of the bottom–up projection SL testbed (left) and a prototype setup (right)

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Fig. 10

Separation force for manufacturing a 90 mm diameter using two constrained surfaces

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Fig. 11

Pictures of printed parts: (left) part failed at second layer using the conventional constrained surface; (right) part successfully printed with a thickness of 1.5 mm and a diameter of 90 mm using the newly developed air-diffusion-channel-based constrained surface

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Fig. 12

Surface roughness measurement of a printed surface

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Fig. 13

Simulation of PDMS deformation when separation force is applied (vertical scale: −0.18 mm to 0 mm)

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Fig. 14

Observed dots inside the projected image

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Fig. 15

Comparision between parts before and after adjustment



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