Research Papers

Steel Case Hardening Using Deformational Cutting

[+] Author and Article Information
Nikolai Zubkov

Cutting Tools and Technologies,
Bauman Moscow State Technical University,
2-ya Baumanskaya Street 5,
Moscow 105005, Russia
e-mail: zoubkovn@bmstu.ru

Victor Poptsov

Cutting Tools and Technologies,
Bauman Moscow State Technical University,
2-ya Baumanskaya Street 5,
Moscow 105005, Russia
e-mail: poptsov-v.v@yandex.ru

Sergey Vasiliev

Cutting Tools and Technologies,
Bauman Moscow State Technical University,
2-ya Baumanskaya Street 5,
Moscow 105005, Russia
e-mail: sergv@bmstu.ru

Andre DL Batako

Manufacturing Technology Laboratory,
Liverpool John Moores University,
Byrom Street,
Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
e-mail: a.d.batako@ljmu.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 1, 2017; final manuscript received February 10, 2018; published online April 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061013 (Apr 02, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1546; doi: 10.1115/1.4039382 History: Received September 01, 2017; Revised February 10, 2018

This paper describes some fundamental principles, specific features, and the technological capabilities of a new method of quenching steel surface by turning without separation of chips. The underlying process of this method is a deformational cutting (DC), which is based on the undercutting and deformation of surface layers that remain attached to the workpiece. The energy released in the area of DC is used to heat the undercut layer up to the temperatures of structural and phase transformation of workpiece material. This type of process results into a hardened structure formed at the surface which consists of inclined thin undercut layers tightly packed and stuck together and form a single solid body. The resulting hardened structures achieved in steels workpieces are presented in the paper. The samples hardened by DC showed a higher wear resistance compared to samples with traditional quenching. This paper also describes an estimation of the thermo-physical parameters of the DC process.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variants of structures obtained during DC quenching: (a) fully hardened fins and (b) fins partially hardened over their thickness

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Fig. 4

Examples of DC on steels with a zero interfin gap: (a) steel 30KhGSA (AISI 4137), f = 0.4 mm; (b) steel 20Kh13 (AISI 420), f = 0.2 mm; (c) steel 35 (AISI 1035), f = 0.1 mm; and (d) Armco pure iron, f = 0.1 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

DC fin forming with zero width of interfin gap

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Fig. 7

Changing in the structure of hardened surface with decreasing the cutting speed. Steel 35 (AISI-1035): (a) V = 4.9 m/s, quenched all fin thickness, (b) V = 3.7 m/s, quenched half a fin thickness, and (c) V = 2.95 m/s, quenched 1/8 of fin thickness.

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Fig. 6

Hardness distribution curves along hardening depth: 1—DC quenching and 2—laser quenching

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Fig. 9

Wear rate: Steel 40Kh (AISI-5140): 1—standard quenching (cooling in water) with low-temperature tempering (200 °C, 40 min), 2—DC quenching without tempering, and 3—DC with low-temperature tempering (at 200 °C for 40 min)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Full hardening over the thickness of fins: (a) steel 35, f = 0.15 mm, 670 HV0.1, (b) steel 35 (AISI-1035), f = 0.05 mm, 650HV0.1, (c) steel 40Kh (AISI-5140), f = 0.05 mm, 680HV0.1, and (d) steel 35 (AISI-1035), f = 0.15 mm, 670 HV0.1 with higher magnification

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Fig. 2

Actual configuration of DC hardening process (а) and hardened of a shaft (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Concept of DC hardening: 1—DC tool, 2—workpiece, 3—cutting edge, 4—deforming edge, 5—undercut layer, 6—tool rake face, and 7—hardened fins

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Fig. 10

Micrographs of hardened sections of 40Kh (AISI-5140) steel: (a) DC quenching without tempering (×25), (b) DC, low-temperature tempering (200 °C, 40 min) (×25), (c) standard quenching (water cooling), low-temperature tempering (200 °C, 40 min) (×25), and (d) worn surface of “(b)” sample with microhardness indents (×120)



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