Research Papers

Characterizing the Effect of Cutting Condition, Tool Path, and Heat Treatment on Cutting Forces of Selective Laser Melting Spherical Component in Five-Axis Milling

[+] Author and Article Information
Amir Mahyar Khorasani

School of Engineering,
Deakin University,
Waurn Ponds 3216, Victoria, Australia
e-mail: mahyar@deakin.edu.au

Ian Gibson

School of Engineering,
Deakin University,
Waurn Ponds 3216, Victoria, Australia
e-mail: ian.gibson@deakin.edu.au

Moshe Goldberg

School of Engineering,
Deakin University,
Waurn Ponds 3216, Victoria, Australia
e-mail: moshe.goldberg@deakin.edu.au

Guy Littlefair

Faculty of Design and Creative Technologies,
Auckland University of Technology,
Auckland 1010, New Zealand
e-mail: guy.littlefair@aut.ac.nz

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 12, 2017; final manuscript received February 12, 2018; published online March 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(5), 051011 (Mar 07, 2018) (16 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1427; doi: 10.1115/1.4039381 History: Received July 12, 2017; Revised February 12, 2018

Additive manufacturing (AM), partly due to its compatibility with computer-aided design (CAD) and fabrication of intricate shapes, is an emerging production process. Postprocessing, such as machining, is particularly necessary for metal AM due to the lack of surface quality for as-built parts being a problem when using as a production process. In this paper, a predictive model for cutting forces has been developed by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The effect of tool path and cutting condition, including cutting speed, feed rate, machining allowance, and scallop height, on the generated force during machining of spherical components such as prosthetic acetabular shell was investigated. Also, different annealing processes like stress relieving, mill annealing and β annealing have been carried out on the samples to better understand the effect of brittleness, strength, and hardness on machining. The results of this study showed that ANN can accurately apply to model cutting force when using ball nose cutters. Scallop height has the highest impact on cutting forces followed by spindle speed, finishing allowance, heat treatment/annealing temperature, tool path, and feed rate. The results illustrate that using linear tool path and increasing annealing temperature can result in lower cutting force. Higher cutting force was observed with greater scallop height and feed rate while for higher finishing allowance, cutting forces decreased. For spindle speed, the trend of cutting force was increasing up to a critical point and then decreasing due to thermal softening.

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Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of powder morphology and size; (b) and (c) CAD–CAM process; (d) printed sample; (e) particles size distribution; and (f) meander pattern

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup

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Fig. 3

RMS error for (a) training, (b) validation, (c) linear movement, and (d) circular movement of cutter

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Fig. 4

The results of the proposed model for training, testing/validation, and recalling steps in four cross validations: (a) number of trails for train in 1st cross validation, (b) number of trails for test in 1st cross validation, (c) number of trails for recall in 1st cross validation, (d) number of trails for train in 2nd cross validation, (e) number of trails for test in 2nd cross validation, (f) number of trails for recall in 2nd cross validation, (g) number of trails for train in 3rd cross validation, (h) number of trails for test in 3rd cross validation, (i) number of trails for recall in 3rd cross validation, (j) number of trails for train in 4th cross validation, (k) number of trails for test in 4th cross validation, and (l) number of trails for recall in 4th cross validation

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Fig. 5

Percentage of input contribution on cutting forces

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Fig. 6

(a), (c), (e) The interaction of scallop height versus tool path for different force components; (b), (d), (f) the interaction of scallop height versus feed rate for different force components

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Fig. 7

(a) Milling operation, (b) material removing by cutter edge, (c) cross section of tool in flute area, (d) head of the cutter, (e) material removing by tip of the cutter, (f) cross section of tool in ball head area, and (g) machined part by helical tool path

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Fig. 8

(a), (c), (e) The interaction of scallop height versus spindle speed for different force components; (b), (d), (f) the interaction of scallop height versus finishing allowance for different force components

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Fig. 9

(a) The effect of cutting force in different directions on cutter; (b) thermal conductivity versus heat distribution on various cutting tools [36]. Note: changing Z direction of force in (a) is showing the reaction of force toward the cutting tool.

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Fig. 10

(a), (c), (e) The interaction of scallop height versus heat treatment temperature for different force components; (d) electron back scatter diffraction images for untreated samples (e) β annealing

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Fig. 11

(a) Breaking elongation for various heat treated samples and (b) tensile strength for different annealed samples. Note: 20 means ambient temperature (no heat treatment).

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Fig. 12

Macrohardness of heat treated samples. Note: 20 means ambient temperature (no heat treatment).




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