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Research Papers

Ultrasonic Welding of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Nylon 66 Composite Without Energy Director

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu-Hao Gao, Qian Zhi, Lei Lu

Key Lab of Materials Physics,
School of Physics and Engineering,
Zhengzhou University,
Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, China

Zhong-Xia Liu

Key Lab of Materials Physics,
School of Physics and Engineering,
Zhengzhou University,
Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, China
e-mail: liuzhongxia@zzu.edu.cn

Pei-Chung Wang

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors Research and
Development Center,
30500 Mound Road,
Warren, MI 48090

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 11, 2017; final manuscript received December 23, 2017; published online March 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(5), 051009 (Mar 06, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1425; doi: 10.1115/1.4039113 History: Received July 11, 2017; Revised December 23, 2017

In this study, weldability of ultrasonic welding of 4-mm-thick fiber carbon/nylon 66 composite in lap configuration was investigated. Ultrasonic welding tests were performed, and the weld appearance, microstructure, and fractography of the welded joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscope. The transient temperatures near the faying surfaces and horn-workpiece interfaces were recorded to understand the weld growth mechanism. It was found that it is feasible to join 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with ultrasonic welding. Under the ultrasonic vibration, the weld initiated and grew at the faying surfaces, while the weld indentation developed at the horn-workpiece interface. The pores observed in the regions between the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) and the fusion zone (FZ), and the severe weld indentation on the surface of upper workpieces decreased the loading capacity of the ultrasonic welded (UW) joints and caused the welded carbon/nylon 66 composite fractured prematurely. The strengths of the ultrasonic welds were determined by the balance of positive effect of the weld area and negative effects of the weld indentation and porosity near the FZ. To ensure the joint strength, it is necessary to apply the proper weld schedules (i.e., welding time and horn pressure) in ultrasonic welding of 4-mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite, which were developed based on the joint strength criterion.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic for ultrasonic welding of injection-molded carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of a single lap-shear specimen (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the temperature measurements during the ultrasonic welding of injection molded 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite without energy director (dimensions in mm)

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Fig. 4

Schematic of sample preparation for examining the microstructure of the UW 4-mm-thick injection molded carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite: (a) as-fabricated and (b) tensile-tested

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Fig. 5

Effects of welding time and horn pressure on the strength of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fibers and without energy director

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Fig. 6

Effects of welding time and horn pressure on the weld area of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fibers and without energy director

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Fig. 7

Effect of welding time on the microstructure of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fiber and without energy director: (a) 1.7 s, (b) 2.1 s, and (c) 2.5 s

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Fig. 8

(a) Cross section of the UW lapped joints of 4-mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fiber and without energy director, (b) magnified view of region A in base material, (c) region B in the HAZ, and (d) region C in the FZ

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Fig. 9

Temperature-time history of the regions near the horn-workpiece and faying surfaces in ultrasonic welding 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fibers and without energy director

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Fig. 10

Effect of welding time on the weld indentation of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fiber and without energy director: (a) sketch of indentation site, (b) 1.7 s, (c) 2.1 s, and (d) 2.5 s

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Fig. 11

Effect of welding time on the thickness of the FZ and strength of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fibers

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Fig. 12

The combined effects of welding time and horn pressure on the strength of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fiber and without energy director

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Fig. 13

The combined effects of welding time and horn pressure on the weld area of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fiber and without energy director

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Fig. 14

The welding process window of ultrasonic welding of 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fibers and without energy director

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Fig. 15

Failure modes of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass fiber and without energy director: (a) interfacial fracture and (b) weld fracture

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Fig. 16

Fractography of the UW 4-mm-thick lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite with 30% mass carbon fibers and without energy director

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Fig. 17

Effect of the preload on the crack development in UW lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite: (a) 3 kN, (b) 4 kN, and (c) 5 kN

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Fig. 18

Fractography of the (a) upper and (b) lower workpieces of the UW lapped carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composite joints with 30% mass fibers and without energy director

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