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Research Papers

Residual Stress in Additive Manufactured Nickel Alloy 625 Parts

[+] Author and Article Information
Lindsey Bass

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: lindsey.bass@vt.edu

Justin Milner

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: justin.milner@nist.gov

Thomas Gnäupel-Herold

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: thomas.gnaeupel-herold@nist.gov

Shawn Moylan

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: shawn.moylan@nist.gov

Manuscript received September 22, 2017; final manuscript received January 2, 2018; published online March 9, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Johnson Samuel. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061004 (Mar 09, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1597; doi: 10.1115/1.4039063 History: Received September 22, 2017; Revised January 02, 2018

One of the key barriers to widespread adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) for metal parts is the build-up of residual stresses. In the laser-based powder bed fusion process, a laser selectively fuses metal powder layer by layer, generating significant temperature gradients that cause residual stress within the part. This can lead to parts exceeding tolerances and experiencing severe deformations. In order to develop strategies to reduce the adverse effects of these stresses, the stresses first need to be quantified. Cylindrical Nickel Alloy 625 samples were designed with varied outer diameters, inner diameters, and heights. Neutron diffraction was used to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) stress state throughout the parts. The stress state of the parts was generally comprised of tensile exteriors and compressive interiors. Regardless of part height, only the topmost scan height of each part experienced large reductions in axial and hoop stress. Improved understanding of the residual stress trends will aid in model development and validation leading to techniques to reduce negative effects of the residual stress.

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Topics: Stress
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flowchart highlighting the progression of key steps for physically measuring and modeling residual stress in metal AM parts. While experimental validation of residual stress in parts is currently necessary, model advancements will expedite the process by reducing the need for physical experiments and iterative validation.

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Fig. 2

Diagram of the laser-based powder bed fusion process

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Fig. 3

Cylindrical samples: (a) as displayed from a CAD model and (b) as built. After fabrication, the build plate was cut as shown by the dotted lines in (a) to isolate each specimen for stress measurements. The three specimens shown that have large inner diameters were not used in this study due to difficulties with measuring stress within the thin walls.

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Fig. 4

Progression of the laser beam in the internal exposure rastering pattern

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Fig. 5

Samples 1–3: (a) geometries and scan heights, (b) scan locations, (c) stresses in samples 1–2, and (d) stresses in sample 3

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Fig. 6

Samples 4–6: (a) geometries and scan heights, (b) scan locations, (c) stresses in samples 4–5, and (d) stresses in sample 6

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Fig. 7

Samples 7–9: (a) geometries and scan heights; (b) scan locations, (c) stresses in samples 7–8, and (d) stresses in sample 9

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Fig. 8

Samples 10–12: (a) Geometries and scan heights, (b) scan locations, (c) stresses in samples 10–11, and (d) stresses in sample 12

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Fig. 9

Projected axial residual stress trends for sample 3 with both (a) linear, (b) second-order polynomial fits, and (c) sample 6 with a second-order polynomial fit

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Fig. 10

Projected axial residual stress trends for sample 9 with both (a) linear, (b) second-order polynomial fits, and (c) sample 12 with a second-order polynomial fit

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