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research-article

Residual Stress in Additive Manufactured Nickel Alloy 625 Parts

[+] Author and Article Information
Lindsey Bass

National Institute of Standards and Technology
lindsey.bass@vt.edu

Justin Milner

National Institute of Standards and Technology
justin.milner@nist.gov

Thomas Gnaupel-Herold

National Institute of Standards and Technology
thomas.gnaeupel-herold@nist.gov

Shawn Moylan

National Institute of Standards and Technology
shawn.moylan@nist.gov

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4039063 History: Received September 22, 2017; Revised January 02, 2018

Abstract

One of the key barriers to widespread adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) for metal parts is the build-up of residual stresses. In the laser-based powder bed fusion process, a laser selectively fuses metal powder layer by layer, generating significant temperature gradients that cause residual stress within the part. This can lead to parts exceeding tolerances and experiencing severe deformations. In order to develop strategies to reduce the adverse effects of these stresses, the stresses first need to be quantified. Cylindrical Nickel Alloy 625 samples were designed with varied outer diameters, inner diameters, and heights. Neutron diffraction was used to characterize the three-dimensional stress state throughout the parts. The stress state of the parts was generally comprised of tensile exteriors and compressive interiors. Regardless of part height, only the topmost scan height of each part experienced large reductions in axial and hoop stress. Improved understanding of the residual stress trends will aid in model development and validation leading to techniques to reduce negative effects of the residual stress.

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