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Research Papers

Residual Stresses in Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 and AZ31: Experimental and Numerical Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Hou

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Petroleum Institute,
P.O. Box 2533,
Abu Dhabi, UAE

J. Sheikh-Ahmad

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Petroleum Institute,
P.O. Box 2533,
Abu Dhabi, UAE
e-mail: jahmad@pi.ac.ae

F. Jarrar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Petroleum Institute,
P.O. Box 2533,
Abu Dhabi, UAE

F. Ozturk

Turkish Aerospace Industries,
Ankara 06980, Turkey

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 1, 2017; final manuscript received December 11, 2017; published online March 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(5), 051015 (Mar 07, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1490; doi: 10.1115/1.4039074 History: Received August 01, 2017; Revised December 11, 2017

Thermal history and residual stresses in dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) of AA2024 and AZ31 were studied under different tool offsets using a coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) finite element model and a mechanical model. Welding experiments and residual stresses' measurements were conducted to validate the models. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results indicated good agreement. The maximum temperature in the welded zone was predicted to be slightly lower than 400 °C, regardless of offset, and that its location shifted with tool offset from the advancing side (AS) to the retreating side (RS). Longitudinal residual stresses changed from tensile under the tool shoulder to compressive beyond this region and it appeared to be the dominant stress component. The transverse stresses were tensile and of lower magnitude. Both the longitudinal and transverse residual stresses have their maximum values within the weld zone near the end of the weld length. For both peak temperatures and residual stresses, higher values were obtained at the AS with no tool offset and 1 mm offset to the AS, and at the RS with 1 mm offset to the RS. Lower residual stresses and better weld quality were obtained with tool offset to the aluminum side.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Geometries of (a) plates and (b) tool used in the CEL model

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Fig. 2

The meshing scheme used in the CEL model for (a) workpiece and (b) tool

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Fig. 3

Schematic view of the samples used in FSW experiments

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Fig. 4

Effect of tool offset on temperature at different locations of thermocouples (refer to Fig. 3 for thermocouple locations): (a) no offset, (b) offset to Al side, and (c) offset to Mg side

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Fig. 5

Measured peak temperatures at 10 mm from the weld line under different tool offsets in comparison with similar measurements in the literature for welding AZ31 to AA6061. Numbers in parenthesis refer to thermocouple location from weld line. Error bars represent the range of experimental data.

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Fig. 6

Predicted temperature fields for different tool offsets after 90 s of welding. Vertical line shows weld centerline: (a) no offset, (b) offset to Al side, and (c) offset to Mg side.

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Fig. 7

Comparison of predicted and measured temperature profiles at 10 mm away from the weld line in the AS and the RS sides (no offset)

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Fig. 8

Predicted and measured temperatures at different distances from the weld line: (a) no offset, (b) 1 mm to the Al side, and (c) 1 mm to the Mg side

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Fig. 9

Predicted longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stress contours with no tool offset (circles show strain gage locations)

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Fig. 10

Predicted longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stress contours with 1 mm offset to AS (circles show strain gage locations)

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Fig. 11

Predicted longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stress contours with 1 mm offset to RS (circles show strain gage locations)

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Fig. 12

Comparison between experimental and predicted longitudinal and transverse residual stresses distributions with a tool offset: (a) no offset, (b) offset to Al side, and (c) offset to Mg side

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Fig. 13

Predicted maximum longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) residual stresses under different tool offsets

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