Research Papers

Modeling Particle Spray and Capture Efficiency for Direct Laser Deposition Using a Four Nozzle Powder Injection System

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher Katinas

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: ckatinas@purdue.edu

Weixiao Shang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: shangw@purdue.edu

Yung C. Shin

Fellow ASME
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette 47907
e-mail: shin@purdue.edu

Jun Chen

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: junchen@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 12, 2017; final manuscript received January 3, 2018; published online February 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(4), 041014 (Feb 14, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1369; doi: 10.1115/1.4038997 History: Received June 12, 2017; Revised January 03, 2018

Powder capture efficiency is indicative of the amount of material that is added to the substrate during laser additive manufacturing (AM) processes, and thus, being able to predict capture efficiency provides capability of predictive modeling during such processes. The focus of the work presented in this paper is to create a numerical model to understand particle trajectories and velocities, which in turn allows for the prediction of capture efficiency. To validate the numerical model, particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) experiments at two powder flow rates were conducted on free stream particle spray to track individual particles such that particle concentration and velocity fields could be obtained. Results from the free stream comparison showed good agreement to the trends observed in experimental data and were subsequently used in a direct laser deposition (DLD) simulation to assess capture efficiency and temperature profile at steady-state. The simulation was validated against a single track deposition experiment and showed proper correlation of the free surface geometry, molten pool boundary, heat affected zone boundary, and capture efficiency.

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Fig. 1

Diagram of DLD process

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Fig. 2

H13 particle shapes at (a) <45 μm, (b) 45 μm < x < 75 μm, (c) 75 μm < x < 90 μm, and (d) 90 μm < x < 150 μm

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Fig. 3

Optomec LENS 750 nozzle geometry—bottom view (left) and side view (right)

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup of PTV equipment

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Fig. 5

Particle velocity field for free stream experimentation at 7.5 rpm hopper speed: (a) individual particles colored by originating nozzle and (b) average overall particle velocity field

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Fig. 6

Detail of particle interaction with laser sheet (a) isometric view and (b) side view

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Fig. 7

Particle concentration for free stream at 9.84 g/min

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Fig. 8

Cross section view of single track H13 deposition

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Fig. 9

Boundary conditions for free stream domain

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Fig. 10

DPM concentration at nozzle head off-axis slices from 0.0 mm to 2.0 mm at 9.84 g/min powder feed rate

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Fig. 11

Comparison of (a) experimental particle concentration and (b) modeled concentration with extracted concentration contours at two locations (9.84 g/min)

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Fig. 12

Comparison of (a) experimental particle concentration and (b) modeled concentration with extracted concentration contours at two locations (6.55 g/min)

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Fig. 13

Error quantification of free stream cases—powder feed of 9.84 g/min (a) and 6.55 g/min (b)

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Fig. 14

Particle velocity fields for free stream scenario at 9.84 g/min (top) and 6.55 g/min (bottom)powder feed rates

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Fig. 15

Comparison of H13 tool steel DLD simulation results to experimental measurements



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