0
Research Papers

Friction Stir Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Advanced High Strength Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Kai Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: chenkai@umich.edu

Xun Liu

Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: xunxliu@umich.edu

Jun Ni

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: junni@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 20, 2017; final manuscript received November 20, 2017; published online August 22, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(11), 111007 (Aug 22, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1153; doi: 10.1115/1.4038993 History: Received March 20, 2017; Revised November 20, 2017

A hybrid friction stir resistance spot welding (RSW) process is applied for joining aluminum alloy 6061 to TRIP 780 steel. Compared with conventional RSW, the applied current density is lower and the welding process remains in the solid state. Compared with conventional friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process, the welding force is reduced and the dissimilar material joint strength is increased. The electrical current is applied in both a pulsed and direct form. With the equal amount of energy input, the approximately same force reduction indicates that the electro-plastic material softening effect is insignificant during FSSW process. The welding force is reduced mainly due to the resistance heating induced thermal softening of materials. With the application of electrical current, a wider aluminum flow pattern is observed in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) of weld cross sections and a more uniform hook is formed at the Fe/Al interface. This implies that the aluminum material flow is enhanced. Moreover, the Al composition in the Al–Fe interfacial layer is higher, which means the atomic diffusion is accelerated.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sun, Y. F. , Konishi, Y. , Kamai, M. , and Fujii, H. , 2013, “ Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of S45C Steel Prepared by Laser-Assisted Friction Stir Welding,” Mater. Des., 47, pp. 842–849. [CrossRef]
Chang, W.-S. , Rajesh, S. R. , Chun, C.-K. , and Kim, H.-J. , 2011, “ Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Laser-Friction Stir Welding Between AA6061-T6 Al Alloy and AZ31 Mg Alloy,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 27(3), pp. 199–204. [CrossRef]
Merklein, M. , and Giera, A. , 2008, “ Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Drawable Steel-Aluminium Tailored Hybrids,” Int. J. Mater. Forming, 1(1), pp. 1299–1302. [CrossRef]
Park, K. , Kim, G.-Y. , and Ni, J. , 2007, “ Design and Analysis of Ultrasonic Assisted Friction Stir Welding,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2007-44007.
Ahmadnia, M. , Seidanloo, A. , Teimouri, R. , Rostamiyan, Y. , and Titrashi, K. G. , 2015, “ Determining Influence of Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AA6061 Joints,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 78(9–12), pp. 2009–2024. [CrossRef]
Luo, J. , Chen, W. , and Fu, G. , 2014, “ Hybrid-Heat Effects on Electrical-Current Aided Friction Stir Welding of Steel, and Al and Mg Alloys,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(12), pp. 3002–3012. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Lan, S. , and Ni, J. , 2015, “ Electrically Assisted Friction Stir Welding for Joining Al 6061 to TRIP 780 Steel,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 219, pp. 112–123. [CrossRef]
Santos, T. G. , Miranda, R. M. , and Vilaça, P. , 2014, “ Friction Stir Welding Assisted by Electrical Joule Effect,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(10), pp. 2127–2133. [CrossRef]
Briskham, P. , Blundell, N. , Han, L. , Hewitt, R. , Young, K. , and Boomer, D. , 2006, “Comparison of Self-Pierce Riveting, Resistance Spot Welding and Spot Friction Joining for Aluminium Automotive Sheet,” SAE Paper No. 0148-7191.
Chen, K. , Liu, X. , and Ni, J. , 2017, “ Effects of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy to Advanced High-Strength Steel,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2016-8589.
Perkins, T. A. , Kronenberger, T. J. , and Roth, J. T. , 2007, “ Metallic Forging Using Electrical Flow as an Alternative to Warm/Hot Working,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 129(1), pp. 84–94. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Lan, S. , and Ni, J. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Electro-Plastic Effect on Advanced High Strength Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: A, 582, pp. 211–218. [CrossRef]
Siopis, M. S. , and Kinsey, B. L. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigation of Grain and Specimen Size Effects During Electrical-Assisted Forming,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Miyamoto, K. , Nakagawa, S. , Sugi, C. , Sakurai, H. , and Hirose, A. , 2009, “ Dissimilar Joining of Aluminum Alloy and Steel by Resistance Spot Welding,” SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf., 2(1), pp. 58–67. [CrossRef]
Arghavani, M. , Movahedi, M. , and Kokabi, A. , 2016, “ Role of Zinc Layer in Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminium to Steel,” Mater. Des., 102, pp. 106–114. [CrossRef]
Sun, D. , Zhang, Y. , Liu, Y. , Gu, X. , and Li, H. , 2016, “ Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welded Joints of 16Mn Steel and 6063-T6 Aluminum Alloy With Different Electrodes,” Mater. Des., 109, pp. 596–608. [CrossRef]
Chen, C.-M. , and Chen, S.-W. , 1999, “ Electric Current Effects on Sn/Ag Interfacial Reactions,” J. Electron. Mater., 28(7), pp. 902–906. [CrossRef]
Chen, S.-W. , Chen, C.-M. , and Liu, W.-C. , 1998, “ Electric Current Effects Upon the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni Interfacial Reactions,” J. Electron. Mater., 27(11), pp. 1193–1199. [CrossRef]
Friel, J. J. , 1994, X-Ray and Image Analysis in Electron Microscopy, Princeton Gamma-Tech, Princeton, NJ.
Barkshire, I. , Karduck, P. , Rehbach, W. P. , and Richter, S. , 2000, “ High-Spatial-Resolution Low-Energy Electron Beam X-Ray Microanalysis,” Microchim. Acta, 132(2), pp. 113–128. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of FSSW tool dimension and the definition of the plunge depth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of the initial experimental setup for the electrically assisted FSSW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of different electrode positions for electrically assisted FSSW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Current density distribution when both electrodes placed on the top aluminum side. (b) Current density distribution when the electrodes placed on different base materials.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Illustration of the experimental setup for electrically assisted FSSW. (b) Schematic illustration of the current flow during the welding process.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simulation results for the current density distribution of the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental setup for the electrical assisted FSSW. (b) A typical welded sample.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of the axial plunge force with and without the electrical current

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Recorded current pulse signal during the FSSW welding process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of axial plunge force with the 560A DC, 900A pulse

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) General cross section view of the welding region. (b) Enlarged cross section view of the sample. (c) EDS line test from point A to B.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Region of interest counts for Zn through EDS line test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Zn flow pattern during the welding process (a) with DC and (b) without current

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of shear strengths under the conditions of no current, 560 A DC and pulse

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Illustration of the material interaction between steel and aluminum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Vortex shape generated at the top of the hook (no current)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

(a) Illustration of the mixing pattern between aluminum and steel at a deeper plunge depth. (b) Cross section view of the inside of the hook (no current).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Enlarged cross section view of Fe/Al interface (a) without current, (b) with DC, and (c) with pulses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Corresponding EDS line test results along Fe/Al interface (a) without current, (b) with DC, and (c) with pulses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Cross section view of the inside of hook (560 A DC)

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In