Research Papers

Predicting Microstructure Evolution During Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V

[+] Author and Article Information
Cengiz Baykasoglu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Hitit University,
Corum 19030, Turkey
e-mail: cengizbaykasoglu@hitit.edu.tr

Oncu Akyildiz

Department of Metallurgical
and Materials Engineering,
Hitit University,
Corum 19030, Turkey
e-mail: oncuakyildiz@hitit.edu.tr

Duygu Candemir

Department of Metallurgical
and Materials Engineering,
Hitit University,
Corum 19030, Turkey
e-mail: duygukorsacilar@hitit.edu.tr

Qingcheng Yang

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: qzy25@psu.edu

Albert C. To

Department of Mechanical Engineering
and Materials Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: albertto@pitt.edu

1Corresponding authors.

2Present address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State University, N-257 Millennium Science Complex, State College, PA 16802.

Manuscript received September 25, 2017; final manuscript received December 20, 2017; published online February 23, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(5), 051003 (Feb 23, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1600; doi: 10.1115/1.4038894 History: Received September 25, 2017; Revised December 20, 2017

Laser engineering net shaping (LENS) is one of the representative processes of directed energy deposition (DED) in which a moving heat source having high-intensity melts and fuses metal powders together to print parts. The complex and nonuniform thermal gradients during the laser heating and cooling cycles in the LENS process directly affect the microstructural characteristics, and thereby the ultimate mechanical properties of fabricated parts. Therefore, prediction of microstructure evolution during the LENS process is of paramount importance. The objective of this study is to present a thermo-microstructural model for predicting microstructure evolution during the LENS process of Ti-6Al-4V. First, a detailed transient thermal finite element (FE) model is developed and validated for a sample LENS process. Then, a density type microstructural model which enables calculation of the α-phase fractions (i.e., Widmanstätten colony and basketweave α-phase fractions), β-phase fraction, and alpha lath widths during LENS process is developed and coupled to the thermal model. The microstructural algorithm is first verified by comparing the phase fraction results with the results presented in the literature for a given thermal history data. Second, the average lath width values calculated using the model are compared with the experimentally measured counterparts, where a reasonable agreement is achieved in both cases.

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Fig. 1

The overall procedure for prediction of the thermal and microstructural outputs

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Fig. 2

Illustration of deposition process

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Fig. 3

Double ellipsoid heat source model

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Fig. 4

Flowchart for the microstructural model

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Fig. 5

Time–temperature–transformation diagram for α-phases. The diagram is based on the calculations presented inRef. [38] and plotted by using the piecewise polynomials reported in Ref. [53].

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Fig. 6

Equilibrium α-phase fraction as a function of temperature given by Eq. (8) and experimental values from Ref. [63]

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Fig. 7

Thermocouples measurement points on the top and bottom surfaces of substrate

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Fig. 8

Temperature history comparison between the simulation and experimental measurements at P1 and P2

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Fig. 9

(a) The primary and secondary heat treatment curve given by Kelly [38] and ((b) and (c)) corresponding α phase fractions and computed phase fractions in the present work using the same temperature–time data

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Fig. 10

The microstructure of the five-layer LENS deposited sample: (a)–(c) preparation of the sample, (d) optical microscopy, (e) a representative SEM micrograph showing α laths, and (f) experimental and simulated average lath widths versus layer number

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Fig. 11

(a) Temperatures in Celsius, (b) total—α, (c) colony—α, and (d) basketweave—α phase fractions evolution during layer-by-layer deposition

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Fig. 12

Temperature, alpha phase fractions, and lath width evolution for the points probed from successive layers, layers 1–5 in (a)–(e), starting from the base point A (at the first layer) shown in Fig. 13

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Fig. 13

(a) Position of probed points, (b) temperature profiles for point A, (c) point B, and (d) time elapsed (Δti=tfi−tsi) during β → colony—α transformation and corresponding colony—α fraction formed



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