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Research Papers

Effect of Substrate Thickness and Preheating on the Distortion of Laser Deposited Ti–6Al–4V

[+] Author and Article Information
David J. Corbin

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: drc5094@psu.edu

Abdalla R. Nassar, Edward W. Reutzel

Applied Research Laboratory,
The Pennsylvania State University,
State College, PA 16804

Allison M. Beese

Department of Materials
Science and Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Pan Michaleris

Autodesk,
State College, PA 16803

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2017; final manuscript received December 28, 2017; published online March 23, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(6), 061009 (Mar 23, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1390; doi: 10.1115/1.4038890 History: Received June 21, 2017; Revised December 28, 2017

The effect of substrate surface preheating on part distortion in laser cladding is investigated through the experimental results of laser deposited Ti–6Al–4V. In situ temperature and distortion measurements were used to monitor the behavior of the substrates before, during, and after deposition. The resulting trends were analyzed, and it was determined that substrate preheating reduces the amount of distortion accumulated in thin substrates but increases the amount of distortion accumulated in thick substrates. Additionally, substrate preheating was found to cause additional distortion of thick substrates during cool-down after processing had finished. The in situ measurements suggest that the stress relaxation of Ti–6Al–4V at elevated temperatures increases the distortion observed in thick substrates, but has minimal effect on distortion in thin substrates.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Laser processing head with completed deposition

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Fig. 2

Fixture used shown freely supporting a substrate with a repair patch deposited in the middle of the substrate

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Fig. 3

Laser path used for patch deposition

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Fig. 4

The heater assembly on top of a 12.7 mm thick substrate

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Fig. 5

Location of welded thermocouples on the top (a) and bottom (b) surfaces of the substrates. The deposited build is shown as a gray square on the top surface of the substrate and is 25.4 × 25.4 mm.

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Fig. 13

Temperature differentials between the top and bottom surfaces (Ttop − Tbottom, measured at TC 1 and 2, respectively, in Fig. 5) of a thin substrate with three layers of deposition (a), a thin substrate with ten layers of deposition (b), a thick substrate with three layers of deposition (c), and a thick substrate with ten layers of deposition (d)

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Fig. 12

Distortion measurements collected during the preheating of a thin substrate (a) and a thick substrate (b). The preheating process occurs in the negative portion of time.

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Fig. 14

Temperature measurements on the bottom of thin and thick substrates 12.7 mm from the center of the substrate (TC 3 in Fig. 5)

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Fig. 15

Distortion of thick substrates due to cooling of the affected zone in materials that do not experience stress relaxation (a), and in Ti–6Al–4V that experiences the effect of stress relaxation (b)

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Fig. 16

Sketch of stress relaxation isotherm when preheated and nonpreheated on thin (a) and thick (b) substrates

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Fig. 11

Incremental distortion accumulated during each layer for thin substrate with three layers of deposition (a), thin substrate with ten layers of deposition (b), thick substrate with three layers of deposition (c), and thick substrate with ten layers of deposition (d)

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Fig. 10

Distortion measurements collected during all depositions: thin substrate with three layers of deposition (a), thin substrate with ten layers of deposition (b), thick substrate with three layers of deposition (c), and thick substrate with ten layers of deposition (d)

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Fig. 9

Distortion and temperature measurements of the ten-layer deposition on a room temperature thick substrate (a) and a preheated thick substrate (b) (TC 1 and TC 2 from Fig. 5)

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Fig. 8

Distortion and temperature measurements of the three-layer deposition on a room temperature thick substrate (a) and a preheated thick substrate (b) (TC 1 and TC 2 from Fig. 5)

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Fig. 7

Distortion and temperature measurements of the ten-layer deposition on a room temperature thin substrate (a) and a preheated thin substrate (b) (TC 1 and TC 2 from Fig. 5)

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Fig. 6

Distortion and temperature measurements of the three-layer deposition on a room temperature thin substrate (a) and a preheated thin substrate (b) (TC 1 and TC 2 from Fig. 5)

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