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Research Papers

Cellular Automaton Simulation of Microstructure Evolution for Friction Stir Blind Riveting

[+] Author and Article Information
Avik Samanta, Ninggang Shen

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Haipeng Ji

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242;
Research Institute for Energy
Equipment Materials,
Hebei University of Technology,
Tianjin 300130, China

Weiming Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii at Manoa,
Honolulu, HI 96822

Jingjing Li

The Harold and Inge Marcus Department
of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,
Penn State University,
State College, PA 16801

Hongtao Ding

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: hongtao-ding@uiowa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 9, 2017; final manuscript received November 17, 2017; published online January 3, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(3), 031016 (Jan 03, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1625; doi: 10.1115/1.4038576 History: Received October 09, 2017; Revised November 17, 2017

Friction stir blind riveting (FSBR) process offers the ability to create highly efficient joints for lightweight metal alloys. During the process, a distinctive gradient microstructure can be generated for the work material near the rivet hole surface due to high-gradient plastic deformation and friction. In this work, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (dDRX) is found to be the major recrystallization mechanism of aluminum alloy 6111 undergoing FSBR. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed for the first time to simulate the evolution of microstructure of workpiece material during the dynamic FSBR process by incorporating main microstructure evolution mechanisms, including dislocation dynamics during severe plastic deformation, dynamic recovery, dDRX, and subsequent grain growth. Complex thermomechanical loading conditions during FSBR are obtained using a mesh-free Lagrangian particle-based smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and are applied in the CA model to predict the microstructure evolution near the rivet hole. The simulation results in grain structure agree well with the experiments, which indicates that the important characteristics of microstructure evolution during the FSBR process are well captured by the CA model. This study presents a novel numerical approach to model and simulate microstructure evolution undergoing severe plastic deformation processes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

An illustration of the FSBR microstructure analysis area: (a) top view and (b) cross section view

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Fig. 2

Microstructure of the work material after FSBR: (a) overall grain structure indicating different evolution zones, (b) grain structure in zone II, and (c) grain structure in zone I near the rivet hole

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Fig. 3

Simulated temperature distribution around the friction stir penetrated hole surface

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Fig. 4

Flowchart for CA model

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the initial microstructure of AA6111-T4 prior to FSBR process: (a) EBSD micrograph, (b) EBSD crystal orientation maps [20], and (c) simulated initial microstructure

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Fig. 6

Simulated contour plot of dislocation density at different stage of the process: (a) before DRX nucleation, (b) onset of DRX nucleation, (c) end of frictional penetration, and (d) end of simulation

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Fig. 7

Spatial evolution of mean dislocation density

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Fig. 8

The recrystallization progress histories of (a) the simulated temperature history of hole surface and (b) volume fraction of the recrystallized domain

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Fig. 9

Evolution of microstructure during CA simulation: (a) DRX nucleation near the right side boundary, (b) DRX nucleation spread toward left boundary, (c) final simulated grain structure, and (d) experimental grain structure (experimental images adapted from Ref. [20]

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Fig. 10

Simulated grain size comparison

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