Technical Brief

A Tailored Tempering Process for CSC-15B22 Steel Sheet

[+] Author and Article Information
Li-Wei Chen

Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided
National Formosa University,
Huwei 632, Yunlin, Taiwan
e-mail: liwei@nfu.edu.tw

Yung-Hung Chen, Yuan-Chuan Hsu

Department of Mechanical and Computer-Aided
National Formosa University,
Huwei 632, Yunlin, Taiwan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 28, 2016; final manuscript received November 1, 2017; published online December 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Burak Sencer.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(2), 024501 (Dec 18, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1684; doi: 10.1115/1.4038370 History: Received December 28, 2016; Revised November 01, 2017

The simulation and experimental methods are used to determine the parameters of a tailored tempering process for a lab-scale B-pillar that is made from CSC-15B22 high-strength steel. The finite element software, DEFORM-3D, is used to simulate the tailored tempering process. A segmented hot stamping tool is developed for testing. Results demonstrate that the cooling and heating systems are successful. On the cooled side of the tooling, the cooling rate for the sheet is more than 30 °C/s. The material structure of the sheets is entirely a martensite structure, which results in an ultra-high strength material. The average hardness is measured as HV423, which translates to a tensile strength of 1350 MPa. On the heated side of the tooling, the cooling rate for the sheet is less than the critical cooling rate, the microstructure of the material is ferrite and pearlite, and the average hardness is measured at HV205, which translates to a tensile strength of approximately 660 MPa. The study demonstrates that a tailored tempering process allows production using integrated tooling and produces sheets that have different mechanical properties.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Liu, Y. , Liu, Y. , and Chen, J. , 2015, “ The Impact of the Chinese Automotive Industry: Scenarios Based on the National Environmental Goals,” J. Cleaner Prod., 96, pp. 102–109. [CrossRef]
Kleiner, M. , Geiger, M. , and Klaus, A. , 2003, “ Manufacturing of Lightweight Components by Metal Forming,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 52(2), pp. 521–542. [CrossRef]
Alonso, E. , Lee, T. M. , Bjelkengren, C. , Roth, R. , and Kirchain, R. E. , 2012, “ Evaluating the Potential for Secondary Mass Savings in Vehicle Lightweighting,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 46(5), pp. 2893–2901. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Neugebauer, R. , Altan, T. , Geiger, M. , Kleiner, M. , and Sterzing, A. , 2006, “ Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 55(2), pp. 793–816. [CrossRef]
Mori, K. , and Okuda, Y. , 2010, “ Tailor Die Quenching in Hot Stamping for Producing Ultra-High Strength Steel Formed Parts Having Strength Distribution,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 59(1), pp. 291–294. [CrossRef]
Karbasian, H. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2010, “ A Review on Hot Stamping,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 210(15), pp. 2103–2118. [CrossRef]
Pan, F. , Zhu, P. , and Zhang, Y. , 2010, “ Metamodel-Based Lightweight Design of B-Pillar With TWB Structure Via Support Vector Regression,” Comput. Struct., 88(1), pp. 36–44. [CrossRef]
Mori, K. , Maeno, T. , and Mongkolkaji, K. , 2013, “ Tailored Die Quenching of Steel Parts Having Strength Distribution Using Bypass Resistance Heating in Hot Stamping,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(3), pp. 508–514. [CrossRef]
George, R. , Bardelcik, A. , and Worswick, M. J. , 2012, “ Hot Forming of Boron Steels Using Heated and Cooled Tooling for Tailored Properties,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(11), pp. 2386–2399. [CrossRef]
Lenze, F.-J. , Banik, J. , and Sikora, S. , 2008, “ Application of Hot Formed Parts for Body in White,” International Deep Drawing Research Group Conference (IDDRG), Olofström, Sweden, June 16–18.
Banik, J. , Lenze, F. J. , Sikora, S. , and Laurenz, R. , 2011, “ Tailored Properties—A Pivotal Question for Hot Forming,” Third International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel, Kassel, Germany, June 13–17.
China Steel Corporation, 2014, “ Product Manual: Hot Rolled Steel,” China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
UL, 2016, “CSC Hot-Rolled Steel HC 15B22 Datasheet,” UL LLC, Northbrook, IL, accessed Nov. 11, 2017, https://metals.ulprospector.com/datasheet/e232676/csc-hot-rolled-steel-hc-15b22
Ethirajan, R. , 2012, Elements of Heat Transfer, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Komvopoulos, K. , 2016, Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials, 2nd ed., Cognella Academic Publishing, San Diego, CA.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

High-temperature plastic flow stress curves for hot stamped CSC-15B22 [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

CCT curves of hot stamped CSC-15B22 [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the segmented tooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the tailored tempering die

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Segmented tooling with the cooling and heating systems

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cooling rate for sheet with and without a floating pin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation in the sheet temperature due to natural air convection and radiation at a room temperature of 25 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Temperature variation in the tooling over 10 stamping cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation in the temperature of the sheet during the quenching process for the first, fifth, and tenth stamping cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation in temperature for the tooling during heating for 60 min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cooling rate for the die face at the heated side of the tooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Variation in the temperature for the sheet at each measurement point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Relationship between the cooling rate and the Vickers hardness for CSC-15B22

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Microstructure of the tailored tempering sheet




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In