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Research Papers

Formability Prediction for Tube Hydroforming of Stainless Steel 304 Using Damage Mechanics Model

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Yuenyong, M. Suthon, S. Kingklang, V. Uthaisangsuk

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
King Mongkut's University
of Technology Thonburi,
126 Pracha Uthit Road,
Bang Mod, Thung Khru,
Bangkok 10140, Thailand

P. Thanakijkasem

Division of Materials Technology,
School of Energy, Environment and Materials,
King Mongkut's University
of Technology Thonburi,
126 Pracha Uthit Road,
Bang Mod, Thung Khru,
Bangkok 10140, Thailand

S. Mahabunphachai

National Metal and Materials
Technology Center (MTEC),
Pathumthani 12120, Thailand

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 22, 2017; final manuscript received October 3, 2017; published online November 14, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(1), 011006 (Nov 14, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1392; doi: 10.1115/1.4038208 History: Received June 22, 2017; Revised October 03, 2017

Tube hydroforming (THF) is an important manufacturing technology for producing tube components by means of fluid pressure. In comparison to other basic forming processes like deep drawing, forming steps can be reduced and more complex shape is allowed. In this work, it was aimed to establish the forming limit curve (FLC) of stainless steel tube grade 304 for the THF process by using finite element (FE) simulations coupled with the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) damage model as failure criterion. The parameters of the GTN model were obtained by metallography analysis, tensile test, plane strain test of the examined steel in combination with the direct current potential drop (DCPD) and digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. These parameters were well verified by comparing the predicted FLC of steel sheet with the experimental FLC gathered from the Nakazima test. Then, the FLC of steel tube 304 was established by FE simulations coupled with the damage model of tube bulging tests. During the bulge tests, pressure and axial feed were properly controlled in order to generate the left-hand FLC, while pressure and external force needed to be simultaneously incorporated for the right-hand FLC. Finally, the FLC was applied to evaluate material formability in an industrial THF process of the steel tube.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Determined stress–strain curves of the investigated steel tube

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Fig. 2

Observed inclusions in the examined steel tube 304

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Fig. 3

Comparison between stress–strain curves obtained from experiment and FE simulations of tensile test

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Fig. 4

SEM image of fracture surface of specimen after tensile test

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Fig. 5

Determined distributions of characterized dimple areas on fracture surface

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Fig. 6

Determination of total void volume fraction from fracture surface of the investigated steel tube

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Fig. 7

Determined relationships between force, voltage, and time from the plane strain test of examined steel

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Fig. 8

Determination of mean strain for void nucleation by measuring local strains on plain strain specimen in combination with the DCPD technique

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Fig. 9

(a) Experimental setup of the Nakazima test and (b) FE model of specimen

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Fig. 10

Influences of mesh size on calculated major strains at failure of (a) 55 mm width and (b) 175 mm width Nakazima sample

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Fig. 11

Comparison between the FLCs of the steel grade 304 obtained from the experiments and FE simulations coupled with the GTN damage model

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Fig. 12

Effective plastic strains of deformed Nakazima samples at failure calculated by FE simulations coupled with the damage model

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Fig. 13

Comparison between calculated and experimental major strains of FLC of the examined steel

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Fig. 14

Determination of instable necking using the time-dependent method

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Fig. 15

Geometries of (a) dies and (b) counterpunch of tube bulging test for FLC determination

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Fig. 16

FE models of the tube bulging tests for generating (a) the left-hand side and (b) right-hand side of FLC

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Fig. 17

Loading paths regarding internal pressure and axial feeding for free bulge test in the case of left-hand FLC

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Fig. 18

Loading paths regarding internal pressure and punch stroke for bulge test with counterpunch in the case of right-hand FLC

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Fig. 19

Influences of mesh size on calculated major strains at failure from bulge test for the (a) left-hand FLC and (b) right-hand FLC

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Fig. 20

FLC of the investigated steel tube grade 304 obtained by using FE simulations coupled with the GTN damage model

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Fig. 21

Distributions of equivalent plastic strains on tube sample at failure in bulge tests calculated by FE simulations coupled with the GTN model for the examined tube grade 304: (a) for the left-hand FLC and (b) for the right-hand FLC

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Fig. 22

Final geometries of tube used in THF process for the validation

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Fig. 23

FLC of steel sheet and tube grade 304 determined by FE simulations coupled with the damage model and calculated strain paths of expanded tube by THF process

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Fig. 24

Plastic strain distribution on expanded tube with the final shape by FE simulation

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