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Research Papers

In-Plane Stiffness of Additively Manufactured Hierarchical Honeycomb Metamaterials With Defects

[+] Author and Article Information
Kazi Moshiur Rahman

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
South Dakota State University,
Brookings, SD 57007
e-mail: kazimoshiur.rahman@jacks.sdstate.edu

Zhong Hu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
South Dakota State University,
Brookings, SD 57007
e-mail: zhong.hu@sdstate.edu

Todd Letcher

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
South Dakota State University,
Brookings, SD 57007
e-mail: todd.letcher@sdstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 27, 2016; final manuscript received October 9, 2017; published online November 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sam Anand.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(1), 011007 (Nov 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1616; doi: 10.1115/1.4038205 History: Received November 27, 2016; Revised October 09, 2017

Cellular metamaterials are of interest for many current engineering applications. The incorporation of hierarchy to cellular metamaterials enhances the properties and introduces novel tailorable metamaterials. For many complex cellular metamaterials, the only realistic manufacturing process is additive manufacturing (AM). The use of AM to manufacture large structures may lead to several types of manufacturing defects, such as imperfect cell walls, irregular thickness, flawed joints, partially missing layers, and irregular elastic–plastic behavior due to toolpath. It is important to understand the effect of defects on the overall performance of the structures to determine if the manufacturing defect(s) are significant enough to abort and restart the manufacturing process or whether the material can still be used in its nonperfect state. In this study, the performance of hierarchical honeycomb metamaterials with defects has been investigated through simulations and experiments, and hierarchical honeycombs were shown to demonstrate more sensitivity to missing cell walls than regular honeycombs. On average, the axial elastic modulus decreased by 45% with 5.5% missing cell walls for regular honeycombs, 60% with 4% missing cell walls for first-order hierarchical honeycomb and 95% with 4% missing cell walls for second-order hierarchical honeycomb. The transverse elastic modulus decreased by about 45% with more than 5.5% missing cell walls for regular honeycomb, about 75% with 4% missing cell walls for first-order and more than 95% with 4% missing cell walls for second-order hierarchical honeycomb.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Evolution of hierarchical honeycomb

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Fig. 2

Additively manufactured samples of regular, first-order and second-order hierarchical honeycomb (from left to right)

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Fig. 3

Additively manufactured representative samples of regular, first-order, and second-order hierarchical honeycomb with defects (defect positions circled)

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Fig. 4

Finite element mesh (zoomed in) (a) regular, (b) first-order hierarchy, and (c) second-order hierarchy

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Fig. 5

Boundary conditions for axial loading (a) all boundary conditions except Z direction constraint (b) right view of all boundary conditions (Z direction constraint included)

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Fig. 6

Boundary conditions for transverse loading (a) all boundary conditions except Z direction constraint (b) right view of all boundary conditions (Z direction constraint included)

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Fig. 7

Experimental setup for uniaxial compression testing

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Fig. 8

Effect of orientation of missing cell walls on the elastic modulus of regular honeycomb

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Fig. 9

Examples of horizontal and inclined defects in regular honeycomb (defect position circled)

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Fig. 10

Effect of missing cell walls on the elastic modulus of regular honeycomb in the axial direction

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Fig. 11

Effect of missing cell walls on the elastic modulus of regular honeycomb in the transverse direction

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Fig. 12

Examples of defects in first-order hierarchical honeycomb

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Fig. 13

Effect of missing cell walls on first-order hierarchical honeycomb structure under axial loading

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Fig. 14

Effect of missing cell walls on the transverse stiffness of first-order hierarchical honeycomb structure

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Fig. 15

Examples of defects in second-order hierarchical honeycomb (defect positions circled)

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Fig. 16

Effect of missing cell walls on the axial stiffness of second-order hierarchical honeycomb structure

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Fig. 17

Effect of missing cell walls on the transverse stiffness of second-order hierarchical honeycomb structure

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Fig. 18

Comparison of axial elastic modulus of hierarchical honeycomb with missing cell walls

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Fig. 19

Comparison of transverse elastic modulus of hierarchical honeycomb with missing cell walls

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