0
Research Papers

Microscopic Interactions in Surface Generation Processes Using Abrasive Tools

[+] Author and Article Information
K. (Subbu) Subramanian

Fellow ASME
STIMS Institute Inc.,
Lexington, MA 02420
e-mail: SubbuKDG@gmail.com

N. Ramesh Babu

Mem. ASME
V Balaraman Institute Chair Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India

Anant Jain

Micromatic Grinding Technologies Ltd.,
Bangalore 562111, Karnataka, India

R. Vairamuthu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 31, 2017; final manuscript received October 3, 2017; published online November 2, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Kai Cheng.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(12), 121016 (Nov 02, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1209; doi: 10.1115/1.4038138 History: Received March 31, 2017; Revised October 03, 2017

Abrasive finishing is one among several surface generation processes, of which grinding process is a subset. In a typical grinding process, six different interactions can be identified at the grinding zone, resulting in surface generation. Among these six interactions, one is governed by the principles of machining, while the others are governed by the principles of tribology. A systematic analysis of these interactions helps to understand the role of both tribological mechanisms and machining interactions in a typical grinding process. Analysis and study of such microscopic interactions and their time-dependent variations also provide an ability to develop a common scientific framework that can be applied for a wide variety of grinding processes and applications. Such framework and associated system thinking enables engineers to be capable of addressing the needs to support a wide variety of industries and end user needs at a time of hyper specialization and narrow boundaries that constrain the professionals.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Subramanian, K. , 2002, The System Approach—A Strategy to Survive and Succeed in the Global Economy, Hanser Gardner Publishers, Cincinnati, OH.
Subramanian, K. , 2015, “Role of Process Science in Manufacturing,” STIMS Institute, Lexington, MA, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, http://stimsinstitute.com/2014/12/26/stims-institute-offers-its-vision-of-21st-century-manufacturing
Shaw, M. C. , 2004, Metal Cutting Principles, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 26–61.
Wolak, J. , and Finnie, I. , 1967, “ A Comparison of Stress-Strain Behavior in Cutting and High Strain Rate Compression Tests,” Eighth International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference (MTDR), Manchester, UK, Sept., pp. 233–246.
Suh, N. P. , 1986, Tribophysics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Subramanian, K. , 1995, “ Finishing Methods Using Multiple or Random Cutting Edges,” Surface Engineering—Section 3C, Vol. 5, American Society for Materials, Materials Park, OH, p. 107.
Malkin, S. , and Guo, C. , 2008, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining With Abrasives, Industrial Press, New York, pp. 319–321.
Lindsay, R. P. , 1986, “ Principles of Grinding,” Handbook of Modern Grinding Technology, R. King and R. Hahn, eds., Chapman and Hill, New York, pp. 30–71. [CrossRef]
Xiao, G. , Malkin, S. , and Danai, K. , 1992, “ Intelligent Control of Cylindrical Plunge Grinding,” American Control Conference (ACC), Chicago, IL, June 24–26, pp. 391–399. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4792095/
Merchant, M. E. , 1945, “ Mechanics of Metal-Cutting Processes—I: Orthogonal Cutting and a Type-2 Chip,” J. Appl. Phys., 16(5), pp. 267–275. [CrossRef]
Long, Y. , Huang, Y. , and Sun, X. , 2010, “ Combined Effect of Flank and Crater Wear on Cutting Force Modeling in Orthogonal Machining—Part II,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 14(1), pp. 24–42. [CrossRef]
Bowden, F. P. , and Tabor, D. , 1939, “ The Area of Contact Between Stationary and Between Moving Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. A., 169(938), pp. 319–411.
Malkin, S. , and Guo, C. , 2008, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining With Abrasives, Industrial Press, New York, pp. 123–124.
Bhushan, B. , 1999, “ Adhesion,” Principles and Applications of Tribology, Wiley, New York, Chap. 5.
Subramanian, K. , 2016, “Bringing the Science to Shop Floor Manufacturing,” STIMS Institute, Lexington, MA, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, https://stimsinstitute.com/2016/02/16/bringing-the-science-to-shopfloor-manufacturing/
Vairamuthu, R. , Bhushan, B. M. , Srikanth, R. , and Ramesh Babu, N. , 2016, “ Performance Enhancement of Cylindrical Grinding Process With a Portable Diagnostic System,” Procedia Manuf., 5, pp. 1320–1336. [CrossRef]
Malkin, S. , and Guo, C. , 2008, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining With Abrasives, Industrial Press, New York, p. 21.
Ramanan, N. V. , and Foster, M. R. , 1997, “ Wear Mechanism of an Electroplated CBN Grinding Wheel During Grinding of a Nickel Base Alloy With Aqueous-Based Coolant,” Second International Machining and Grinding Conference, Dearborn, MI, Sept. 8–11, pp. 25–38.
Creamics, 2017, “ Abrasive Raw Materials,” Creamics International, Tamil Nadu, India, accessed Sept. 10, 2017, http://www.ceramint.com/pink-fused-alumina-3255182.html
Saint-Gobian, 2017, “ AZ-40 for Coated Abrasives—Product Codes: 1565 & 1575,” Saint Gobain Abrasive Materials, Worcester, MA, accessed Sept. 10, 2017, www.abrasivematerials.saint-gobain.com/sites/imdf.abrasivematerials.com/files/az40_for_coated_abrasives_70376.pdf
Rowse, R. A. , and Watson, G. R. , 1975, “Zirconia-Alumina Abrasive Grain and Grinding Tools,” W. W. Norton & Company, New York, U.S. Patent No. 3891408. https://www.google.com/patents/US3891408
Haynes, D. G. , 1991, “Alumina Bonded Abrasive for Cast Iron,” 3M Manufacturing Company, Maplewood, MN, U.S. Patent No. 5139536. http://www.google.co.in/patents/US5139536
Saint-Gobian, 2017, “ Saint-Gobain Abrasive Materials: Cerpass,” Saint Gobain Abrasive Materials, Worcester, MA, accessed Sept. 10, 2017, http://www.abrasivematerials.saint-gobain.com/products
Sandvik, 2017, “ Borazon CBN,” Sandvik AB, Sandviken, Sweden, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, https://www.hyperion.sandvik.com/en/products/diamond-and-cbn/cubic-boron-nitride-cbn/mesh-cubic-boron-nitride-cbn/borazon-cbn/
Hahn, R. S. , and Lindsay, R. P. , 1972, “ The Science of Ceramic Machining and Surface Finishing,” Symposium Sponsored by the American Ceramic Society, The Principles of Grinding The Office of Naval Research and The National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, Nov. 2–4, p. 70. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=iLhted8Id5cC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Subramanian, K. , and Lindsay, R. P. , 1992, “ A Systems Approach for the Use of Vitrified Bonded Superabrasive Wheels for Precision Production Grinding,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 114(1), pp. 41–52. [CrossRef]
Malkin, S. , and Cook, N. H. , 1971, “ The Wear of Grinding Wheels: Part 1---Attritious Wear,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93(4), pp. 1120–1128.
Malkin, S. , and Cook, N. H. , 1971, “ The Wear of Grinding Wheels: Part II---Fracture Wear,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93(4), pp. 1129–1133.
Malkin, S. , and Guo, C. , 2008, Grinding Technology: Theory and Application of Machining With Abrasives, Industrial Press, New York, pp. 54–60.
Andrew, C. , Howes, T. D. , and Pearce, T. R. A. , 1985, Creep Feed Grinding, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Ltd, Sussex, UK, pp. 1–2.
Wang, S. , and Li, C. H. , 2012, “ Application and Development of High-Efficiency Abrasive Process,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Technol., 47, pp. 51–64. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/23ee/407e0b8cf463eb0f3b1b8028300c306ba9fe.pdf
Subramanian, K. , and Tricard, M. , 1995, “CNC Grinding From Simple Solid Shape-A Rapid Response Strategy,” SME Dearborn, MI, Technical Paper No. MR95-269.
Klocke, F. , Brinksmeier, E. , Evans, C. , Howes, T. , Inasaki, I. , Minke, E. , Tönshoff, H. K. , Webster, J. A. , and Stuff, D. , 1997a, “ High-Speed Grinding—Fundamentals and State of the Art in Europe, Japan and USA,” Ann. CIRP, 46(2), pp. 715–724. [CrossRef]
Batako, A. D. L. , Morgan, M. N. , and Rowe, B. W. , 2013, “ High Efficiency Deep Grinding With Very High Removal Rates,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 66(9–12), pp. 1367–1377. [CrossRef]
Salmon, S. C. , 2004, “ Creep-Feed Grinding Is Surprisingly Versatile,” Manuf. Eng., 133(5), pp. 59–64.
Jackson, M. J. , and Hitchiner, M. P. , 2013, High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools, Springer, New York. [CrossRef]
Benes, J. , 2007, “All About Abrasives: An Array of Abrasive-Grain Types Meets Any Grinding or Finishing Requirement,” American Machinist, Cleveland, OH, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, http://www.americanmachinist.com/features/all-about-abrasives
Marinescu, I. D. , Rowe, W. B. , Dimitrov, B. , and Ohmori, H. , 2012, “ Abrasives and Abrasive Tools,” Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes, William Andrew, Norwich, NY, Chap. 11.
Subramanian, K. , Jain, A. , Rajagopal, V. , and Bhushan, B. M. , 2015, “Tribology as an Enabler for Innovation in Surface Generation Processes,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2015-52952.
Nakajima, T. , Uno, Y. , and Fujiwara, T. , 1989, “ Cutting Mechanism of Fine Ceramics With a Single Point Diamond,” Precis. Eng., 11(1), pp. 19–25. [CrossRef]
Subramanian, K. , Ramanath, S. , and Tricard, M. , 1997, “ Mechanisms of Material Removal in the Precision Production Grinding of Ceramics,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 119(4A), pp. 509–519. [CrossRef]
Taniguchi, N. , 1983, “ Current Status in, and Future Trends of, Ultraprecision Machining and Ultrafine Materials Processing,” Ann. CIRP, 32(2), pp. 573–582.
Subramanian, K. , Webster, J. W. , and Caputa, P. , 2010, “Method for Grinding Complex Shapes,” Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc., Worcester, MA, U.S. Patent No. 7708619 B2 https://www.google.ch/patents/US7708619.
Besse, J. R. , Graham, D. C. , Subramanian, K. , Ramanath, S. , and Lamoureux, M. A. , 2014, “Abrasive Tool and a Method for Finishing Complex Shapes in Workpieces,” Saint-Gobain Abrasives, Inc., Worcester, MA, U.S. Patent No. 8911283. http://www.google.co.in/patents/US8911283
Besse, J. R. , and Graham, D. , 2009, “Grinding Turbine Rotors Has Advantages,” Modern Machine Shop, Cincinnati, OH, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, https://www.mmsonline.com/articles/grinding-turbine-rotors-has-advantages
Russ, W. , 2015, “Grinding Big Gears from Blanks,” Modern Machine Shop, Cincinnati, OH, accessed Oct. 14, 2017, https://www.mmsonline.com/articles/grinding-big-gears-from-blanks
Graham, D. , Hitchiner, M. , and Plainte, P. , 2013, “ Advances in Abrasive Technology for Grinding Gears From Solid,” Gear Solutions, 11(12), pp. 46–55. http://www.gearsolutions.com/article/detail/6368/Advances-in-Abrasive-Technology-for-Grinding-Gears-from-Solid

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A system approach for manufacturing processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Microscopic interactions in abrasive finishing processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Time-dependent behavior in abrasive finishing processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Power versus MRR and its components from the grinding process signature (power versus time signal)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Components of power with their associated microscopic interactions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Tangential and normal forces in a grinding process and their components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Merchant's model for machining processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Chip generated through “machining” in grinding processes: (a) carbon steel, (b) stainless steel, (c) cross section, and (d), and (e) Lamellar structure on the top surface of the chip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Tangential and normal force components for straight surface plunge grinding of (a) two steels and (b) three nonferrous metals all with vitrified wheels (32a46); grinding at: vs = 30 m/s, ds = 200 mm, vw = 4.6 m/min, a = 25 mm, b = 6.4 mm [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Microscopic interactions and their related force vectors for grinding processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Grinding power and displacement measurement—grinding with coarse and fine dressed wheel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Power versus MRR; derived Pth and Uc (SCE)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Grinding power and displacement measurement for two different grit types: (a) before dressing and (b) after dressing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

P versus MRR for two different grit types: (a) before dressing and (b) after dressing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Role of microscopic interactions in grinding with E.P. CBN grinding using (a) WSO and (b) oil as coolants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Early developments in abrasive grains viewed as tribological elements and their influence on microscopic interactions [19]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Developments in abrasive grains and their role as tribological elements to influence the time-dependent variation in threshold effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Transition between cutting and tribology in abrasive finishing processes (a) ideal machining (interaction 1.1) versus actual machining process in practice, (b) role of abrasive grain as a cutting tool and tribological element, (c) abrasive grain induced wear flats in diamond dressing tools, (d) wear flats on abrasive grains (leading to interactions 1.2 and 1.3) induced by wear flats in diamond dressing tools [26]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Effect of abrasive grit size and wear flats in CBN wheel grinding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Abrasive finishing process innovations using the chip thickness (hc) as the control element

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Mechanisms in the grinding of ceramics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Grinding of ceramics (a) influence of tribology in grinding of brittle materials: A.1—poor thermal management, A.2—Identical process and component with better management of tribology including thermal management, (b) micro grinding of steel, (c) micro grinding of a hard ceramic disc, (d) ceramic springs machined from hollow tubes using suitable grinding methods, (e) thin diameter ceramic rods generated from standard cylindrical blanks by plunge grinding, (f) 8 in silicon wafer after micro grinding to 120 μ thickness and 25 Å Ra finish, (g) fine grinding of 2 in SiC wafer to 20 Å Ra surface finish, and (h) precision thin slicing used in the fabrication of multilayer magnetic recording head for storage drive applications

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Comparison of MRR capability versus tolerance for surface generation processes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Samples of components finished by M2G process; (a) model component ground from solid blank, (b) profiled slots in a model component, (c), (d) hypoid gear ground from solid, (e), and (f) Large gears ground from solid

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In