Research Papers

Adaptive Grinding Process—Prevention of Thermal Damage Using OPC-UA Technique and In Situ Metrology

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthias Steffan

Institute of Production Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Graz 8010, Austria
e-mail: matthias.steffan@tugraz.at

Franz Haas

Institute of Production Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Graz 8010, Austria
e-mail: franz.haas@tugraz.at

Alexander Pierer

Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and
Forming Technology,
Chemnitz 09126, Germany
e-mail: alexander.pierer@iwu.fraunhofer.de

Gentzen Jens

Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools
and Forming Technology,
Chemnitz 09126, Germany
e-mail: jens.gentzen@iwu.fraunhofer.de

Manuscript received March 30, 2017; final manuscript received October 2, 2017; published online November 2, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Xun Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(12), 121008 (Nov 02, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1189; doi: 10.1115/1.4038123 History: Received March 30, 2017; Revised October 02, 2017

The production process grinding deals with finishing of hardened workpieces and is one of the last stages of the value-added production chain. Up to this process step, considerable costs and energy have been spent on the workpieces. In order to avoid production rejects, significant safety reserves are calculated according to the present state of the art. The authors introduce two approaches to minimize the safety margin, thus optimizing the process’ economic efficiency. Both control concepts use the feed rate override of the machining operation as regulating variable to eliminate thermal damage of the edge zone. The first control concept is developed to avoid thermal damage in cylindrical plunge grinding by controlling the cutting forces. Therefore, the industrial standard Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (OPC-UA) is used for the communication between a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller and the SINUMERIK grinding machine tool control system. For noncircular workpieces, grinding conditions change over the circumference. Therefore, thermal damage cannot be ruled out at any time during the grinding process. The authors introduce a second novel control approach, which uses a micromagnetic measure that correlates with thermal damage as the main control variable. Hence, the cutting ability of the grinding wheel and thermal damage to the workpiece edge zone is quantified in the process. The result is a control concept for grinding of noncircular workpieces, which opens up fields for major efficiency enhancement. With these two approaches, grinding processes are raised on higher economic level, independently of circular and noncircular workpiece geometries.

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Fig. 1

Relation between specific grinding energy and specific material removal rate. Source: Own illustration, based on Vits [6].

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Fig. 2

3D relationship provides the reference variable for the proportional–integral–derivative (PID)-controller

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Fig. 3

Machine setup for in-process measurement of thermal damage during cylindrical and cam shaft grinding

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Fig. 4

Implementation of the controller based on tangential grinding force

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Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the control loop

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Fig. 6

Change of the feed rate by the control algorithm

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Fig. 7

Measurement principle for detection of Barkhausen noise

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Fig. 9

Grinding experiment of a cam with local thermal damage over five workpiece revolutions

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Fig. 8

Assignment of workpiece sections to ring-puffer segments of the controller



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