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Research Papers

Analysis of Grinding Surface Creation by Single-Grit Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
X. Chen

General Engineering Research Institute,
Liverpool John Moores University,
Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
e-mail: x.chen@ljmu.ac.uk

T. T. Öpöz

General Engineering Research Institute,
Liverpool John Moores University,
Liverpool L3 3AF, UK

A. Oluwajobi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Technology,
Obafemi Awolowo University,
P.M. B. 13,
Ile-Ife 220005, Nigeria

Manuscript received March 30, 2017; final manuscript received September 12, 2017; published online November 2, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Mark Jackson.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(12), 121007 (Nov 02, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1187; doi: 10.1115/1.4037992 History: Received March 30, 2017; Revised September 12, 2017

This paper presents some new research findings in the investigation of single-grit grinding in terms of surface creation. The investigation demonstrated that rubbing–plowing–cutting hypothesis of grinding material removal mechanism is valid in both experiments and simulations. A finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the material deformation during the grit interacts with the workpiece. It was found that the cutting mechanism is the more effective in the first half of the scratch where the grit penetrates the workpiece. The plowing is a prominent mechanism in the second half of the scratch where the grit is climbing up along the scratch path and uplifting the material at the front and the sides of it. This observation is very important to provide a greater insight into the difference between up-cut and down-cut grinding material removal mechanisms. Multipasses scratch simulations were performed to demonstrate the influence of plowing on the ground surface formation. Moreover, by analyzing the effects of grinding conditions, the shape of cutting edges, and friction in grinding zone on the grinding surface formation, some useful relations between grinding performance and controllable parameters have been identified. It has demonstrated that plowing has significant influences on ground surface formation and concluded that the influence of grit shape, friction, and grinding kinetic condition should be considered together for the plowing behavior control, which could provide a good guidance for the improvement of grinding efficiency.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Grinding material removal three phases (rubbing, plowing, and cutting)

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Fig. 2

Single-grit test setup on the Nanoform 250 machine

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Fig. 3

Scratches generated by longitudinal scratching method (top picture) and traverse scratching method (bottom picture)

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Fig. 4

Calculation of pile up ratio and actual material removal area

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Fig. 5

SEM image of a single-grit scratch

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Fig. 6

Grit surface topography: (a) before single-grit grinding test, (b) after single-grit grinding test, and (c) grit surface profile measured after the single-grit grinding test

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Fig. 7

A single-grit FEM simulation path

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Fig. 8

Remeshing the workpiece with iterative adaptive remeshing technique: (a) standard mesh for the first simulation run, (b) remeshed part after first simulation run, and (c) remeshed part after second simulation run

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Fig. 9

Rubbing phase using plastic strain contour as an indicator

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Fig. 10

Pile up ratio along grit cutting path for FEM simulation

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Fig. 11

Pile up ratio along grit cutting path, an experimental result

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Fig. 12

Sectional profiles of simulated scratches with various friction coefficients

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Fig. 13

Groove depth along the grit cutting path

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Fig. 14

Total forces exerted by the grit during simulation

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Fig. 15

(a) Scratch longitudinal transection profile and (b) cross-sectional profile in longitudinal scratching method

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Fig. 16

Pile up ratio versus depth of cut

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Fig. 17

Pile up ratio versus groove area

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Fig. 18

Pile up ratio versus depth of cut for the grit with flat bottom

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Fig. 19

Actual material removal area versus depth of cut

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Fig. 20

Multipass grit grinding simulation

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Fig. 21

The deformation presented after three parallel scratch passes with 10 μm apart

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Fig. 22

Parallel scratch force variations

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