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research-article

Simulation and Measurement of Refractive Index Variation in Localized Rapid Heating Molding for Polymer Optics

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaohua Liu

School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, No.5 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, P.R.China; Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
liuxh89@126.com

Tianfeng Zhou

School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, No.5 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
zhoutf@bit.edu.cn

Lin Zhang

Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
zhang.5265@buckeyemail.osu.edu

Wenchen Zhou

Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
zhou.1879@osu.edu

Jianfeng Yu

Nanomaterial Innovation Ltd., 1109 Millcreek Lane, Columbus, Ohio 43220-4949, USA
dendrions@yahoo.com

James Ly Lee

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
lee.31@osu.edu

Allen Y. Yi

Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
yi.71@osu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4037707 History: Received April 12, 2017; Revised August 08, 2017

Abstract

Localized rapid heating process utilizing nano-scale carbide-bonded graphene coated silicon molds is a high-efficiency and energy-saving technique for large-volume micro-optical polymer fabrication. The graphene coating is used as a rapid heating film because of its high electrical conductivity and low surface resistivity. A significant feature of this new approach is that only a very small fraction of the polymer substrate in which the temperature is raised to above transition temperature (Tg), contribute most of the deformation and optical property change, while the bulk of the polymer substrate is unchanged during the process. In this study, Finite element method (FEM) simulation was utilized to interpret the temperature increasing of graphene and heat transfer between graphene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) during localized rapid heating. Experiments were then carried out under different voltages to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the numerical model. Afterwards, the refractive index variation of the PMMA block resulting from the non-uniform thermal history in molding was demonstrated by simulation modeling. Based on the simulation results, a new refractive index variation prediction model was further built to evaluate the refractive index variation distribution along the radial direction of a molded PMMA. Finally, wavefront variation of a PMMA lens molded by localized rapid heating were obtained according to FEM model and verified by optical measurements with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). The wavefront variation in the PMMA lens molded by conventional method was also measured.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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