Research Papers

An Experimental and Simulation Study for Powder Injection Multitrack Laser Cladding of P420 Stainless Steel on AISI 1018 Steel for Selected Mechanical Properties

[+] Author and Article Information
Navid Nazemi

Department of Mechanical, Automotive,
& Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: nazemi@uwindsor.ca

Jill Urbanic

Department of Mechanical, Automotive,
& Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON, Canada, N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: jurbanic@uwindsor.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 24, 2017; final manuscript received August 10, 2017; published online November 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(1), 011009 (Nov 16, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1116; doi: 10.1115/1.4037604 History: Received February 24, 2017; Revised August 10, 2017

Laser cladding is a rapid physical metallurgy process with a fast heating–cooling cycle, which is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties of the substrate's surface. A fully coupled thermal–metallurgical–mechanical finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate the process of coaxial powder-feed laser cladding for selected overlap conditions and employed to predict the mechanical properties of the clad and substrate materials, as well as distortions and residual stresses. The numerical model is validated by comparing the Vickers microhardness measurements, melt pool dimensions, and heat-affected zone (HAZ) geometry from experimental specimens' cross sectioning. The study was conducted to investigate the temperature field evolution, thermal cycling characteristics, and the effect of deposition directions and overlapping conditions on the microhardness properties of multitrack laser cladding. This study employed P420 stainless steel clad powder on a medium carbon structural steel plate substrate. The study was carried out on three case studies of multitrack bead specimens with 40%, 50%, and 60% overlap. The results provide relevant information for process planning decisions and present a baseline to the downstream process planning optimization.

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Fig. 1

(a) Laser cladding system and process parameters used for this research [23] and (b) scheme of a standard laser deposition system [24]

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Fig. 2

Cross sectioned views of overlap specimens and microhardness measurement map (shown as dots on pictures): (a) 40% overlap, (b) 50% overlap, and (c) 60% overlap

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Fig. 3

Heat source placed on the cladding path and the needed parameters to define the 3D conical Gaussian heat source model (dimensions in millimeter)

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Fig. 4

(a) 3D geometry of the multitrack cladded specimens and direction of claddings; (b) a convergence study with maximum residual stress versus the number of elements in the mesh for the specimen with 50% bead overlap; and (c)–(e) cross sections of the specimens with 40%, 50%, and 60% overlap, respectively

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Fig. 5

Average hardness values in the bead and substrate for specimens with a 40%, 50%, and 60% overlap

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Fig. 6

3D and midlength section views of hardness contours for a multitrack specimen with a one-way cladding pattern: (a) 40% overlap and (b) 60% overlap

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Fig. 7

3D and midlength section views of hardness contours for the multitrack specimen with a zigzag cladding pattern: (a) 40% overlap and (b) 60% overlap

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Fig. 8

Average hardness values on the surface of the clad at different locations of the specimens with 40%, 50%, and 60% bead overlap with one-way and zigzag cladding patterns

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Fig. 9

Hardness profiles of the specimen with one-way and zigzag cladding pattern with 60% bead overlap: (a) at the center of beads and (b) at joints between beads

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Fig. 10

Hardness profiles for specimens with 40% and 60% bead overlap with one-way and zigzag cladding patterns: (a) at the center of the second bead and (b) at the joint between the second and third beads

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Fig. 11

Hardness contours for a specimen with a 40% bead overlap after removing a layer from the top of the bead

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Fig. 12

Maximum out-of-plane distortions in specimens with a 40%, 50%, 55%, and 60% overlap

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Fig. 13

Out-of-plane distortion in millimeters (one-way cladding in the left and zigzag cladding in the right) for specimen with a 50% overlap

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Fig. 14

Maximum residual stresses in specimens with 40%, 50%, 55%, and 60% bead overlap: (a) transverse residual stress and (b) longitudinal residual stress

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Fig. 15

Temperature profile and the cooling path and profiles at the start, middle, and end nodes as shown in Fig. 4(a) for the specimen with 40% overlap

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Fig. 16

Middle point peak temperature variations of three beads for the specimen: (a) 40% overlap, (b) 50% overlap, and (c) 60% overlap




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