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Research Papers

Effects of Laser Radiation on the Wetting and Diffusion Characteristics of Kovar Alloy on Borosilicate Glass

[+] Author and Article Information
Min Zhang

Mem. ASME
Laser Processing Research Center,
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
Soochow University,
Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu, China
e-mail: mzhang@aliyun.com

Y. Lawrence Yao

Fellow ASME
Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: yly1@columbia.edu

Chang Jun Chen

Mem. ASME
Laser Processing Research Center,
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
Soochow University,
Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu, China
e-mail: chjchen2001@aliyun.com

Panjawat Kongsuwan

Mem. ASME
Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: panjawat.kon@mtec.or.th

Grant Brandal

Mem. ASME
Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: gbb2114@columbia.edu

Dakai Bian

Mem. ASME
Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: db2875@columbia.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 5, 2017; final manuscript received June 21, 2017; published online November 17, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(1), 011012 (Nov 17, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1133; doi: 10.1115/1.4037426 History: Received March 05, 2017; Revised June 21, 2017

The purpose of this study was to investigate the advantages of laser surface melting for improving wetting over the traditional approach. For comparison, kovar alloy was preoxidized in atmosphere at 700 °C for 10 min, and then wetted with borosilicate glass powder at 1100 °C with different holding time in atmosphere. The proposed approach used a Nd:YAG laser to melt the surface of the kovar alloy sample in atmosphere, then wetted with borosilicate glass powder at 1100 °C with the same holding time. The laser melted surface shows a decrease in contact angle (CA) from 47.5 deg to 38 deg after 100 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the surface and adjacent depth have higher concentration of FeO for laser treated kovar (Kovar(L)) than that on traditional thermal treated kovar (kovar(P)). This is attributed to the following improved wetting and diffusion process. The adhesive oxide layer formed on kovar (L) may enhance the oxygen diffusion into the substrate and iron diffusion outward to form an outside layer. This is an another way to enhance the wetting and diffusion process when compared to the delaminated oxide scales formed on kovar (P) surface. The diffusion mechanisms were discussed for both approaches. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that an iron oxide interlayer in the joint existed under both conditions. Fayalite nucleated on the iron oxide layer alloy and grew into the glass. In both cases, neither Co nor Ni were involved in the chemical bonding during wetting process. The work has shown that laser surface melting can be used to alter the wetting and diffusion characteristics of kovar alloy onto borosilicate glass.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Microstructure of the cross section for laser melted zone: (a) optical microscopy and (b) high magnification of the white framed area shown in Fig. 1(a) (OS 1-oxide scale 1, OS 2-oxide scale 2)

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Fig. 2

(a) Cross section of pre-oxidized Kovar alloy showing oxide and substrate under 700 °C and holding time of 10 min in atmosphere and (b) the high magnification of the framed area shown in (a) (OS 1-oxide scale 1, OS 2-oxide scale 2)

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Fig. 3

Fe 2p XPS spectra of (a) as received, (b) pre-oxidized, and (c) laser treated Kovar sample surface

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Fig. 4

XPS depth profiles for laser treated and pre-oxidation Kovar samples

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Fig. 5

Typical appearance of postwetting showing glass spreading on kovar alloy (100 min for pre-oxidized kovar): (a) low magnification and (b) high magnification of the framed area shown in Fig. 5(a)

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Fig. 6

CA as a function of time for wetting of kovar by glass at 1100 °C with different holding time for pre-oxidized and laser treated sample (The error bar is based on standard deviation)

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Fig. 7

Microstructure of the different zone after wetting for (a) kovar (P) and (b) kovar(L), (1100 °C with holding time of 100 min; I indicates porous kovar internal oxidation; G indicates glass zone)

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Fig. 8

(a) SEM micrograph of kovar (P) to alloy interface in the central region, (b) SEM micrograph of kovar (L) to alloy interface in the central region, and (c) element line scan along the dotted arrowed line shown in Fig. 8(b)

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Fig. 9

Relationship between internal oxidation thickness (zone I shown in Fig. 7) for Kovar (P) and kovar (L) with different holding time (The error bar is based on standard deviation)

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Fig. 10

(a) SEM microscope and (b) EDX line scan along the vertical line shown in Fig. 10(a) for kovar pre-oxidized at 700 °C for 10 min, and then wetted at 1000 °C for 160 min (I indicates porous kovar internal oxidation; II shows interlayer; and III is the mixed zone between glass and Fe2SiO4 phase)

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Fig. 11

(a) SEM microscope and (b) EDX line scan along the vertical line shown in Fig. 11(a) for laser treated sample without pre-oxidation, and then wetted at 1000 °C for 160 min

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