Research Papers

Modeling and Simulation of a Selective Laser Foaming Process for Fabrication of Microliter Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

[+] Author and Article Information
JinGyu Ock

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Wei Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: weiwli@austin.utexas.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 14, 2017; final manuscript received July 18, 2017; published online September 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(11), 111016 (Sep 13, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1097; doi: 10.1115/1.4037425 History: Received February 14, 2017; Revised July 18, 2017

Selective laser foaming is a novel process that combines solid-state foaming and laser ablation to fabricate an array of microliter tissue engineering scaffolds on a polymeric chip for biomedical applications. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed to investigate the effect of laser processing parameters. Experimental results with biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) were used for validation. It is found that foaming always occurs before ablation, and once it occurs, the temperature increases dramatically due to an enhanced laser absorption effect of the porous structure. The geometry of the fabricated scaffolds can be controlled by laser parameters. While the depth of scaffolds can be controlled by laser power and lasing time, the diameter is more effectively controlled by the laser power. The model developed in this study can be used to optimize and control the selective foaming process.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ock, J. , Philpott, B. T. , and Li, W. , 2013, “ Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Tissue Scaffold Arrays Using Laser Foaming,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2013-65195.
Ock, J. , and Li, W. , 2014, “ Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Tissue Model Microarray Using Laser Foaming of a Gas-Impregnated Biodegradable Polymer,” Biofabrication, 6(2), p. 024110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ock, J. , and Li, W. , 2015, “ Selective Laser Foaming for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture on a Compact Disc,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2015-9475.
McEwan, M. , Lins, R. J. , Munro, S. K. , Vincent, Z. L. , Ponnampalam, A. P. , and Mitchell, M. D. , 2009, “ Cytokine Regulation During the Formation of the Fetal–Maternal Interface: Focus on Cell–Cell Adhesion and Remodelling of the Extra-Cellular Matrix,” Cytokine Growth Factor Rev., 20(3), pp. 241–249. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bolshakova, A. , Petukhova, O. , Turoverova, L. , Tentler, D. , Babakov, V. , Magnusson, K. , and Pinaev, G. , 2007, “ Extra-Cellular Matrix Proteins Induce Re-Distribution of Alpha-Actinin-1 and Alpha-Actinin-4 in A431 Cells,” Cell Biol. Int., 31(4), pp. 360–365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abbott, A. , 2003, “ Cell Culture: Biology's New Dimension,” Nature, 424(6951), pp. 870–872. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fuchs, E. , Tumbar, T. , and Guasch, G. , 2004, “ Socializing With the Neighbors: Stem Cells and Their Niche,” Cell, 116(6), pp. 769–778. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sealya, M. P. , Madireddya, G. , Li, C. , and Guo, Y. B. , 2016, “ Finite Element Modeling of Hybrid Additive Manufacturing by Laser Shock Peening,” 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 6–8, pp. 306–316. https://sffsymposium.engr.utexas.edu/sites/default/files/2016/021-Sealy.pdf
Cheng, J. , and Yao, Y. L. , 2004, “ Process Design of Laser Forming for Three-Dimensional Thin Plates,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 126(2), pp. 217–225. [CrossRef]
Satoh, G. , Qiu, C. , Naveed, S. , and Yao, Y. L. , 2015, “ Strength and Phase Identification of Autogenous Laser Brazed Dissimilar Metal Microjoints,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(1), p. 011012. [CrossRef]
Churchill, S. W. , and Chu, H. H. , 1975, “ Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection From a Vertical Plate,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 18(11), pp. 1323–1329. [CrossRef]
Jamshidinia, M. , Kong, F. , and Kovacevic, R. , 2013, “ Numerical Modeling of Heat Distribution in the Electron Beam Melting® of Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061010. [CrossRef]
Lax, M. , 1977, “ Temperature Rise Induced by a Laser Beam,” J. Appl. Phys., 48(9), pp. 3919–3924. [CrossRef]
Nisar, S. , Sheikh, M. , Li, L. , Pinkerton, A. J. , and Safdar, S. , 2010, “ The Effect of Laser Beam Geometry on Cut Path Deviation in Diode Laser Chip-Free Cutting of Glass,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Li, W. , and Kumar, V. , 2006, “ A Method for Solvent-Free Fabrication of Porous Polymer Using Solid-State Foaming and Ultrasound for Tissue Engineering Applications,” Biomaterials, 27(9), pp. 1924–1929. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pyda, M. , Bopp, R. , and Wunderlich, B. , 2004, “ Heat Capacity of Poly (Lactic Acid),” J. Chem. Thermodyn., 36(9), pp. 731–742. [CrossRef]
Joyce, P. , Radice, J. , Tresansky, A. , and Watkins, J. , 2012, “ A COMSOL Model of Damage Evolution Due to High Energy Laser Irradiation of Partially Absorptive Materials,” COMSOL Conference, Boston, MA, Oct. 3–5. https://www.comsol.co.in/offers/conference2012papers/papers/presentation/area/heat/id/13881/
Groulx, D. , and Ogoh, W. , 2009, “ Solid-Liquid Phase Change Simulation Applied to a Cylindrical Latent Heat Energy Storage System,” COMSOL Conference, Boston, MA, Oct. 8–10. https://www.comsol.co.in/paper/download/101067/Groulx.pdf
Stephenson, R. M. , 2012, Handbook of the Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds, Springer Science and Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Wang, X. , Kumar, V. , and Li, W. , 2007, “ Low Density Sub-Critical CO2-Blown Solid-State PLA Foams,” Cell. Polym., 26(1), pp. 11–35.
Wang, X. , Kumar, V. , and Li, W. , 2012, “ Development of Crystallization in PLA During Solid-State Foaming Process Using Sub-Critical CO,” Cell. Polym., 31(1), pp. 1–18. http://www.polymerjournals.com/pdfdownload/1102519.pdf
Wang, X. , Li, W. , and Kumar, V. , 2009, “ Creating Open-Celled Solid-State Foams Using Ultrasound,” J. Cell. Plast., 45(4), pp. 353–369. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, M. , Koelling, K. W. , and Chalmers, J. J. , 1998, “ Characterization of the Degradation of Polylactic Acid Polymer in a Solid Substrate Environment,” Biotechnol. Prog., 14(3), pp. 517–526. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nayak, N. C. , Lam, Y. , Yue, C. , and Sinha, A. T. , 2008, “ CO2-Laser Micromachining of PMMA: The Effect of Polymer Molecular Weight,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 18(9), p. 095020. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A schematic of the selective laser foaming process: (a) gas saturation and (b) laser irradiation [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Geometry and meshing of the FEA model. (1)(4) denote the model boundaries.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Solution procedure of the finite element model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison between experimental data and modeling results: (a) cross-sectional SEM image of laser ablated and unfoamed sample, (b) simulation result of the unfoamed sample, (c) cross-sectional SEM image of laser foamed and ablated sample, and (d) predicted temperature distribution of the foamed sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of predicted and experimental results. Ablation and foaming profiles are shown by the upper and lower curves, respectively. Scale bars are all 1 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The volume of foamed region as a function of laser energy. Each graph has different laser power setup: (a) 2.0 W, (b) 4.6 W, (c) 7.7 W, and (d) 10.3 W.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature distribution on the top surface of a saturated sample at a laser power of 7.7 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Depth of ablated region as a function of lasing time at different laser powers. Hundred percentage indicates the maximum laser power.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Diameter of ablated region as a function of lasing time with different laser powers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Depth of foamed region as a function of lasing time at different laser powers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Diameter of foamed region as a function of lasing time at different laser powers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Normalized laser power density along with radial direction of the laser beam



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In