Research Papers

Performance Prediction for Ultrasonic Spot Welds of Short Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites Under Shear Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaifeng Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: wangkaifeng1987@gmail.com

Daniel Shriver

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: dshriver@umich.edu

Mihaela Banu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125
e-mail: mbanu@umich.edu

S. Jack Hu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: jackhu@umich.edu

Guoxian Xiao

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors R&D Center,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: guoxian.xiao@gm.com

Jorge Arinez

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors R&D Center,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: Jorge.arinez@gm.com

Hua-Tzu Fan

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors R&D Center,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: charles.fan@gm.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 23, 2016; final manuscript received June 26, 2017; published online September 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(11), 111001 (Sep 13, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1676; doi: 10.1115/1.4037320 History: Received December 23, 2016; Revised June 26, 2017

Ultrasonic welding is a well-known technique for joining thermoplastics and has recently been introduced to joining carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC). However, suitable models for predicting joint performance have not yet been established. At present, most failure models for bonded composites are built based on uniform adhesive joints, which assume constant joint properties. Nevertheless, the joint properties of ultrasonic spot welds for CFRC are variable, which depend on the input welding parameters. In this paper, the effect of welding energy, which is the most important welding parameter, on the joint properties is investigated. Then, a surface-based cohesive performance model based on mode-II (in-plane) shear loading is developed to predict the joint performance, wherein the critical fracture parameters in the model are described via the functions of welding energy. After comparing the simulated results with experiments, the model is proven feasible in predicting the joint properties of the ultrasonic spot welds under shear loading condition, and hence, a mix-mode cohesive-zone model is practical to predict the joint performance under any loading conditions with the predicted fracture parameters.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Fig. 4

Steps of processing the image: (a) original image, (b) filtered image, (c) picture with ellipses fit, and (d) 3D representation of the fibers

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Fig. 3

Microscopy of the structure of an injection molded coupon: fiber orientation with respect to the flow direction. (a) Lateral view of the 40% CF Nylon 6 composite coupon—TtD means through thickness direction, and LD means longitudinal direction, (b) through thickness cross section showing the skin–core–skin structure, and SEM image of the fibers and matrix in the (c) skin area and (d) core area.

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Fig. 2

Measured true stress–strain curves of as-received coupons

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Fig. 1

Ultrasonic welding configuration for joining two coupons

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Fig. 8

Geometry of the lap shear test and the associated meshing of the coupons

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Fig. 5

Lateral view of the lap shear test with details of the fracture areas: SEM of the fracture area (a) 100× and (b) 400× which underlines fracture in matrix

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Fig. 6

Three different failure modes: (a) interfacial separation, (b) nugget shear fracture, and (c) nugget pull-out fracture

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Fig. 7

The evolution of microstructures of the cross section through the weld area

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Fig. 11

Predicted versus experimental dependencies of cohesive parameters (shear strength, shear toughness, and weld area) on the welding energy

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the experimental and simulation lap shear test: (a) experimental lap shear for a joint obtained with W = 1000 J and (b) simulation lap shear for the same joint using the surface-based cohesive layer model

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Fig. 9

Schematic geometries of the welded coupons during the physical experimental process: (a) analytical, (b) experimental, and (c) simulation

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Fig. 10

A traction–separation curve: (a) theoretical determination of the model-II parameters and (b) experimental curve of 40% CF Nylon 6 joint composites with a welding energy of 800 J

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the simulated maximum shear load with the experimental results

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Fig. 14

Finite element model of the 90 deg shear configuration

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the simulated results with the experimental ones using 90 deg shear model



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