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research-article

Additive Manufacturing with Conductive, Viscoelastic Polymer Composites: Direct-Ink-Writing of Electrolytic and Anodic Poly(ethylene oxide) Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Sepehr Nesaei

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 405 NE Spokane St, Pullman WA, 99164
sepehr.nesaei@wsu.edu

Mitch Darman Rock

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 405 NE Spokane St, Pullman WA, 99164
darman.rock@wsu.edu

Yu Wang

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 405 NE Spokane St, Pullman WA, 99164
yu.wang3@wsu.edu

Michael Kessler

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 405 NE Spokane St, Pullman WA, 99164
michaelr.kessler@wsu.edu

Arda Gozen

Washington State University, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 405 NE Spokane St, Pullman WA, 99164
arda.gozen@wsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4037238 History: Received March 13, 2017; Revised June 18, 2017

Abstract

Conductive viscoelastic polymer composites (CVPCs) consisting of conductive fillers in viscoelastic polymer matrices find numerous applications in emerging technologies such as flexible electronics, energy storage, and biochemical sensing. Additive manufacturing methods at micro and meso-scales provide exciting opportunities towards realizing the unique capabilities of such material systems. In this paper, we study the direct-ink-writing (DIW) process of CVPCs consisting of electrically conductive additives in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix. We particularly focus on the deposition mechanisms of the DIW process and the influence of these mechanisms on the printed structure geometry, morphology, and functional properties. To this end, we utilized a novel practical approach of modeling the ink extrusion through the nozzles considering the non-newtonian viscous effects while capturing the viscoelastic extensional flow (drawing) effects through the variation of the nozzle exit pressure. We concluded that inks containing higher amounts of high molecular weight PEO exhibits drawing type deposition at high printing speeds and low inlet pressures enabling thinner, higher aspect ratio structures with ideal three-dimensional stacking. Under this deposition mechanism, the electrical conductivity of the anodic structures decreased with increasing printing speed, indicating the effect of the drawing mechanism on the printed structure morphology.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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