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Technical Brief

Subsurface Deformation Generated by Orthogonal Cutting: Analytical Modeling and Experimental Verification

[+] Author and Article Information
Dong Zhang, Han Ding

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China

Xiao-Ming Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zhangxm.duyi@gmail.com

Jürgen Leopold

Precision Engineering Department,
Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and
Forming Technology,
Chemnitz 09661, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 19, 2017; final manuscript received May 31, 2017; published online July 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(9), 094502 (Jul 18, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4036994 History: Received January 19, 2017; Revised May 31, 2017

Subsurface deformation of the cutting process has attracted a great deal of attention due to its tight relationship with subsurface hardening, microstructure alteration, grain refinement, and white layer formation. To predict the subsurface deformation of the machined components, an analytical model is proposed in this paper. The mechanical and thermal loads exerted on the workpiece by the primary and tertiary shear zones are predicted by a combination of Oxley's predictive model and Fang's slip line field. The stress field and temperature field are calculated based on contact mechanics and the moving heat source theory, respectively. However, the elastic–plastic regime induced by the material yielding hinders the direct derivation of subsurface plastic deformation from the stress field and the work material constitutive model. To tackle this problem, a blending function of the increment of elastic strain is developed to derive the plastic strain. In addition, a sophisticated material constitutive model considering strain hardening, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal softening effects of work material is incorporated into this analytical model. To validate this model, finite element simulations of the subsurface deformation during orthogonal cutting of AISI 52100 steel are conducted. Experimental verification of the subsurface deformation is carried out through a novel subsurface deformation measurement technique based on digital image correlation (DIC) technique. To demonstrate applications of the subsurface deformation prediction, the subsurface microhardness of the machined component is experimentally tested and compared against the predicted values based on the proposed method.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) The combined slip line model and (b) details of the slip line field in the tertiary shear zone

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup and principle of the split workpiece method for subsurface deformation evaluation

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Fig. 3

Cutting force signals for each cutting condition: (a)–(f) correspond to cutting conditions from I to VI, respectively

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Fig. 4

Contour maps of subsurface equivalent plastic strain for cutting conditions listed in Table 3: (a)–(f) correspond to cutting conditions from I to VI, respectively

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Fig. 5

Comparison of subsurface deformation obtained by analytical model, FEM, and experimental tests: (a)–(f) correspond to cutting conditions from I to VI, respectively

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Fig. 6

Illustration of microhardness test pattern

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Fig. 7

Comparisons of subsurface microhardness obtained by analytical model and experimental tests: (a)–(f) correspond to cutting conditions from I to VI, respectively

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Fig. 8

Subsurface plastic equivalent strain at various locations for cutting conditions I, II, and III

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Fig. 9

Subsurface plastic equivalent strain at various locations for cutting conditions IV, V, and VI

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