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Research Papers

Phononic Crystal Artifacts for Real-Time In Situ Quality Monitoring in Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaochi Xu

Photo-Acoustics Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
Potsdam, NY 13699-5725
e-mail: xiaxu@clarkson.edu

Chaitanya Krishna Prasad Vallabh

Photo-Acoustics Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
Potsdam, NY 13699-5725
e-mail: vallabc@clarkson.edu

Zachary James Cleland

Photo-Acoustics Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
Potsdam, NY 13699-5725
e-mail: clelanzj@clarkson.edu

Cetin Cetinkaya

Photo-Acoustics Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Aeronautical Engineering,
Clarkson University,
Potsdam, NY 13699-5725
e-mail: cetin@clarkson.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 27, 2016; final manuscript received May 22, 2017; published online June 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sam Anand.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(9), 091001 (Jun 22, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1302; doi: 10.1115/1.4036908 History: Received May 27, 2016; Revised May 22, 2017

Additive manufacturing (AM) is rapidly becoming a local manufacturing modality in fabricating complex, custom-designed parts, providing an unprecedented form-free flexibility for custom products. However, significant variability in part geometric quality and mechanical strength due to the shortcomings of AM processes has often been reported. Presently, AM generally lacks in situ quality inspection capability, which seriously hampers the realization of its full potential in delivering qualified practical parts. Here, we present a monitoring approach and a periodic structure design for developing test artifacts for in situ real-time monitoring of the material and bonding properties of a part at fiber/bond-scale. While the production method used in current work is filament based, the proposed approach is generic as defects are always due to materials in a bonding zone and their local bonding attributes in any production modality. The artifact design detailed here is based on ultrasonic wave propagation in phononic coupons consisting of repeating substructures to monitor and eventually to assess the bond quality and placement uniformity—not only for geometry but also for defect states. Periodicity in a structure leads to the dispersion of waves, which is sensitive to geometric/materials properties and irregularities. In this proof-of-concept study, an experimental setup and basic artifact designs are described and off-line/real-time monitoring data are presented. As a model problem, the effects of printing speed on the formation of stop bands, wave propagation speeds and fiber placement accuracy in samples are detected and reported.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Engineering drawings of the proposed test artifact by NIST [2] in 2012. All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of the integrated experimental setup configured in the on-line pulse-echo mode (not to scale) and (b) photograph of the transducer/delay-line holder apparatus with a sample being printed by the 3D printer

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Fig. 3

Photograph of a 3D-printed phononic structure sample with the specified dimensions of 30 × 30 × 8 mm

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Fig. 4

The optical microscope images of the longitudinal cross sections of the phononic artifacts showing the actual fiber thickness (tm), the spacing between two adjacent print fibers(sm), and the print layer height (hm) with a stencil grid indicating the specified geometricdimensions (ts, ss, hs) for (a) GR01 at a printing speed of vp = 17 mm/s, (b) GR04 at vp = 42 mm/s, (c) GR07 at vp = 75 mm/s, and (d) close-up optical microscope image of a single fiber in GR01

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Fig. 5

(a) Photograph of the 3D printer integrated with an acoustic characterization and testing instrument (ATT2010), (b) schematics of the experimental setup (instrumentation diagram) operating at the off-line pitch-catch mode, and (c) an example waveform of Print Layer 05 in SB01 acquired from the real-time experiment setup

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Fig. 6

Waterfall plots of the ensembles of the waveforms acquired real time at the pulser voltage of 200 V for all the print layers (20 print layers) in the time interval of t = 10–55 μs. The acoustic response (z-axis) of the delay-line and the sample for each print layer (y-axis) in the temporal domain (x-axis) for (a) SB01 at vp = 33 mm/s, (b) GR01 at vp = 17 mm/s, (c) GR04 at vp = 42 mm/s, and (d) GR07 at vp = 75 mm/s.

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Fig. 7

Contour plots of the ensemble of the real-time waveforms for all the print layers (20 print layers) in the time interval of t = 10–55 μs. The acoustic responses (black and gray regions) of the delay-line and the sample for each print layer (y-axis) in the timedomain (x-axis) for (a) SB01 at vP = 33 mm/s, (b) GR01 at vP = 17 mm/s, (c) GR04 at vP = 42 mm/s, and (d) GR07 at vP = 75 mm/s at the pulser voltage levels of 200 V (top) and 350 V (bottom).

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Fig. 8

Waveforms acquired with the off-line measurement setup (pitch-catch mode) at the pulser voltage of 200 V (i) SB01 with an amplification factor (AF) of 4, (ii) GR01 with an AF = 4.6, (iii) GR02 with an AF = 4.3, (iv) GR03 with an AF = 4.9, (v) GR04 with an AF = 6.25, (vi) GR05 with an AF = 5.12, (vii) GR06 with an AF = 10.5, and (viii) GR07 with an AF = 12

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Fig. 9

Spectral responses acquired with the off-line measurement setup (pitch-catch mode) at the pulser voltage of 200 V for the sample set (GR01-07, and SB01), indicating the boundaries of the stop (SB) and pass (PB) bands in the transducer bandwidth (labeled as Interface Response, thick solid line)

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Fig. 10

(a) Schematic of the structure showing the printing unit, the diameter of the circle is 400 μm and (b) a simple spring-mass model representing the localized elasticity of the bonding zone as a linear spring-mass system for unit j of the periodic phononic artifact with n = 20 units

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Fig. 11

Sample mixing point waveform acquired from the online/real-time measurement setup (pulse-echo mode) for the delay line and Print Layer 01 of GR01 at the pulser voltage level of 350 V with the close-ups of the respective mixing points

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Fig. 12

A ray tracing diagram of the transmitted and reflected waves for Print Layer 11 (Ns = 11) in GR01 acquired with the online/real-time monitoring setup (not to scale)

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Fig. 13

(a) Temporal response for Print Layer 20 (top layer) of the sample GR01 (completed sample made at vp = 17 mm/s) acquired at the voltage level of 350 V in the on-line monitoring setup (pulse/echo mode), the possible reflection pulse from Print Layer 20 is indicated by a dashed box. Inset to (a): A close-up of possible reflection in the time interval of t = 40–44.5 μs and its frequency spectrum (b) are shown with the pass bands (PB I and PB II) of the sample indicated by gray boxes.

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