0
Research Papers

An Accurate Method for Determining Cutter-Workpiece Engagements in Five-Axis Milling With a General Tool Considering Cutter Runout

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhou-Long Li

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: lzl@sjtu.edu.cn

Li-Min Zhu

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhulm@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 10, 2016; final manuscript received May 9, 2017; published online December 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(2), 021001 (Dec 18, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1636; doi: 10.1115/1.4036783 History: Received December 10, 2016; Revised May 09, 2017

Cutter runout is universal and inevitable in milling process and has a direct impact on the shape of the in-process geometry. However, most of the works on the cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE) extraction neglect the cutter runout impact, which will result in a loss of precision. In this paper, an accurate method is presented to obtain CWE boundaries in five-axis milling with a general tool integrating the cutter runout impact. First, each flute's rotary surface is analytically derived. Then, by intersecting the section circle corresponding to the current flute with each of the rotary surface formed by previous flutes, a set of candidate feasible contact arcs (CFCAs) are obtained, and the valid feasible contact arc (VFCA) is defined as the common intersection of these CFCAs. Next, by intersecting the VFCA with the workpiece surfaces, the partial arc which locates inside the workpiece volume is extracted as the engagement arc. Finally, the CWE map is plotted by mapping a set of engagement arcs to a 2D space. To validate the proposed method, the CWE maps with/without integrating the cutter runout impact in five-axis milling of an axial compressor blisk are extracted and compared. The results reveal that the shape of CWE boundaries is changed a lot owing to the cutter runout impact. A cutting force comparison experiment has been carried out to show that the proposed method will lead to higher prediction accuracy especially in the finish milling process with low immersion angle.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Harik, R. , Gong, H. , and Bernard, A. , 2013, “ 5-Axis Flank Milling: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Comput. Aided Des., 45(3), pp. 796–808. [CrossRef]
Zhu, L. M. , Zheng, G. , Ding, H. , and Xiong, Y. L. , 2010, “ Global Optimization of Tool Path for Five-Axis Flank Milling With a Conical Cutter,” Comput. Aided Des., 42(10), pp. 903–910. [CrossRef]
Fussell, B. , Jerard, R. , and Hemmett, J. , 2003, “ Modeling of Cutting Geometry and Forces for 5-Axis Sculptured Surface Machining,” Comput. Aided Des., 35(4), pp. 333–346. [CrossRef]
Zhu, R. X. , Kapoor, S. G. , and DeVor, R. E. , 2001, “ Mechanistic Modeling of the Ball End Milling Process for Multi-Axis Machining of Free-Form Surfaces,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 123(3), pp. 369–379. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Yao, Y. , Xia, P. , Liu, C. , and Wu, C. , 2008, “ Extended Octree for Cutting Force Prediction,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 39(9–10), pp. 866–873. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. Q. , Feng, J. C. , Wang, Y. H. , and Chen, M. , 2009, “ Feedrate Scheduling Strategy for Free-Form Surface Machining Through an Integrated Geometric and Mechanistic Model,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 40(11–12), pp. 1191–1201. [CrossRef]
Kim, G. , Cho, P. , and Chu, C. , 2000, “ Cutting Force Prediction of Sculptured Surface Ball-End Milling Using Z-Map,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 40(2), pp. 277–291. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. Q. , 2011, “ Process Modeling and Toolpath Optimization for Five-Axis Ball-End Milling Based on Tool Motion Analysis,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 57(9–12), pp. 905–916. [CrossRef]
Aras, E. , and Yip-Hoi, D. , 2008, “ Geometric Modeling of Cutter/Workpiece Engagements in Three-Axis Milling Using Polyhedral Representations,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 8(3), p. 031007. [CrossRef]
Yau, H.-T. , and Tsou, L.-S. , 2009, “ Efficient NC Simulation for Multi-Axis Solid Machining With a Universal APT Cutter,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 9(2), p. 021001. [CrossRef]
Zhu, Z. , Yan, R. , Peng, F. , Duan, X. , Zhou, L. , Song, K. , and Guo, C. , 2016, “ Parametric Chip Thickness Model Based Cutting Forces Estimation Considering Cutter Runout of Five-Axis General End Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 101, pp. 35–51. [CrossRef]
Tuysuz, O. , Altintas, Y. , and Feng, H.-Y. , 2013, “ Prediction of Cutting Forces in Three and Five-Axis Ball-End Milling With Tool Indentation Effect,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 66, pp. 66–81. [CrossRef]
Kiswanto, G. , Hendriko, H. , and Duc, E. , 2015, “ A Hybrid Analytical-and Discrete-Based Methodology for Determining Cutter-Workpiece Engagement in Five-Axis Milling,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 80(9–12), pp. 2083–2096. [CrossRef]
Spence, A. D. , Abrari, F. , and Elbestawi, M. A. , 2000, “ Integrated Solid Modeller Based Solutions for Machining,” Comput. Aided Des., 32(8), pp. 553–568. [CrossRef]
Freiburg, D. , Hense, R. , Kersting, P. , and Biermann, D. , 2016, “ Determination of Force Parameters for Milling Simulations by Combining Optimization and Simulation Techniques,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(4), p. 044502. [CrossRef]
Lazoglu, I. , Boz, Y. , and Erdim, H. , 2011, “ Five-Axis Milling Mechanics for Complex Free Form Surfaces,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 60(1), pp. 117–120. [CrossRef]
Boz, Y. , Erdim, H. , and Lazoglu, I. , 2015, “ A Comparison of Solid Model and Three-Orthogonal Dexelfield Methods for Cutter-Workpiece Engagement Calculations in Three-and Five-Axis Virtual Milling,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 81(5–8), pp. 811–823. [CrossRef]
Larue, A. , and Altintas, Y. , 2005, “ Simulation of Flank Milling Processes,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 45(4), pp. 549–559. [CrossRef]
Aras, E. , and Albedah, A. , 2014, “ Extracting Cutter/Workpiece Engagements in Five-Axis Milling Using Solid Modeler,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 73(9–12), pp. 1351–1362. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y. , and Guo, Q. , 2011, “ Numerical Simulation and Prediction of Cutting Forces in Five-Axis Milling Processes With Cutter Run-Out,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(10), pp. 806–815. [CrossRef]
Ferry, W. , and Yip-Hoi, D. , 2008, “ Cutter-Workpiece Engagement Calculations by Parallel Slicing for Five-Axis Flank Milling of Jet Engine Impellers,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(5), p. 051011. [CrossRef]
Gong, X. , and Feng, H.-Y. , 2016, “ Cutter-Workpiece Engagement Determination for General Milling Using Triangle Mesh Modeling,” J. Comput. Des. Eng., 3(2), pp. 151–160.
Li, Z. L. , Wang, X. Z. , and Zhu, L. M. , 2016, “ Arc–Surface Intersection Method to Calculate Cutter–Workpiece Engagements for Generic Cutter in Five-Axis Milling,” Comput.-Aided Des., 73, pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Li, Z. L. , and Zhu, L. M. , 2016, “ Mechanistic Modeling of Five-Axis Machining With a Flat End Mill Considering Bottom Edge Cutting Effect,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(11), p. 111012. [CrossRef]
Chang, Z. , and Chen, Z. C. , 2016, “ An Accurate and Efficient Approach to Three-Dimensional Geometric Modeling of Undeformed Chips for the Geometric and the Physical Simulations of Three-Axis Milling of Complex Parts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(5), p. 051010. [CrossRef]
Schmitz, T. L. , Couey, J. , Marsh, E. , Mauntler, N. , and Hughes, D. , 2007, “ Runout Effects in Milling: Surface Finish, Surface Location Error, and Stability,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(5), pp. 841–851. [CrossRef]
Li, Z. L. , and Zhu, L. M. , 2014, “ Envelope Surface Modeling and Tool Path Optimization for Five-Axis Flank Milling Considering Cutter Runout,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(4), p. 041021. [CrossRef]
Desai, K. , Agarwal, P. K. , and Rao, P. , 2009, “ Process Geometry Modeling With Cutter Runout for Milling of Curved Surfaces,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(12), pp. 1015–1028. [CrossRef]
Li, Z.-L. , Niu, J.-B. , Wang, X.-Z. , and Zhu, L.-M. , 2015, “ Mechanistic Modeling of Five-Axis Machining With a General End Mill Considering Cutter Runout,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 96, pp. 67–79. [CrossRef]
Engin, S. , and Altintas, Y. , 2001, “ Mechanics and Dynamics of General Milling Cutters—Part I: Helical End Mills,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41(15), pp. 2195–2212. [CrossRef]
Wan, M. , Zhang, W.-H. , Dang, J.-W. , and Yang, Y. , 2009, “ New Procedures for Calibration of Instantaneous Cutting Force Coefficients and Cutter Runout Parameters in Peripheral Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(14), pp. 1144–1151. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. W. , and Nestler, A. , 2011, “ Complete Swept Volume Generation—Part I: Swept Volume of a Piecewise C-1-Continuous Cutter at Five-Axis Milling Via Gauss Map,” Comput.-Aided Des., 43(4), pp. 427–441. [CrossRef]
Martellotti, M. , 1941, “ An Analysis of the Milling Process,” Trans. ASME, 63(8), pp. 677–695.
Wan, M. , Zhang, W.-H. , Dang, J.-W. , and Yang, Y. , 2010, “ A Unified Stability Prediction Method for Milling Process With Multiple Delays,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 50(1), pp. 29–41. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Parameter definition of a general tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Geometry model of a general tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cutter runout model: (a) diagram of cutter offset and cutter tilt, (b) construction of three coordinate systems, and (c) sectional view of cutter runout

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tool rotary surface undergoing five-axis motions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Extraction of the CFCA by intersecting the current section circle with the rotary surface formed by previous flute

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schema of generation of the VFCA in presence of cutter runout

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Determination of cutting entry/exit angles based on the arc–surface intersection method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Illustration of the CWE map

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Generation of the swept volume

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Schema of workpiece updating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Rough milling simulation of an axial compressor blisk: (a) 3D model of the blisk and the workblank and (b) the whole rough milling tool paths

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The CWE extraction of CL #86 at the slot tool path: (a) tool path simulation, (b) nominal CWE map using the method in Ref. [23], (c) CWE map considering a partial cutter runout impact using the method in Ref. [29], and (d) CWE map considering the whole cutter runout impact using the proposed method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The CWE extraction of CL #215 at the second tool path: (a) tool path simulation, (b) nominal CWE map using the method in Ref. [23], (c) CWE map considering a partial cutter runout impact using the method in Ref. [29], and (d) CWE map considering the whole cutter runout impact using the proposed method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Tool cutting entry angles and exit angles versus cutter offsets (at height 8 mm of CL#215)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Tool cutting entry angles and exit angles versus feedrates (at height 8 mm of CL#215)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of the predicted cutting forces based on different CWE calculation models: (a) at CL#86 of the first slot path and (b) at CL#215 of the second path

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Calculation of the chip thickness h in the presence of cutter runout (see color figure online)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Comparison of the predicted cutting forces based on different CWE calculation models

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In