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research-article

Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) of Flexible Electronic Devices: Online Monitoring of Functional Electrical Properties Using Shape-from-Shading (SfS) Image Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Roozbeh Salary

Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
rsalary1@binghamton.edu

Jack Lombardi

Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
jlombar4@binghamton.edu

Prahalad Rao

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
rao@unl.edu

Mark D. Poliks

Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY 13902, USA
mpoliks@binghamton.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4036660 History: Received February 07, 2017; Revised April 29, 2017

Abstract

The goal of this research is online monitoring of functional electrical properties, e.g., resistance, of electronic devices made using Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) additive manufacturing (AM) process. In pursuit of this goal, the objective is to recover the cross-sectional profile of AJP-deposited electronic traces (called lines) through Shape-from-Shading (SfS) analysis of their online images. The aim is to use the SfS-derived cross-sectional profiles to predict the electrical resistance of the line; as per Ohm’s law electrical resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area. Accordingly, silver nanoparticle lines were deposited using an Optomec AJ-300 printer at varying sheath gas flow rate (ShGFR) conditions. The four-point probes method, known as Kelvin sensing, was used to measure the resistance of the printed structures offline. Images of the lines were acquired online using a CCD camera mounted coaxial to the deposition nozzle. To recover the cross-sectional profiles from the online images, three different SfS techniques are tested: Horn’s method, Pentland’s method, and Shah’s method. Optical profilometry was used to validate the SfS cross-section estimates; Shah’s method was found to have the highest fidelity of the three SfS approaches tested. The line resistance predicted as a function of ShGFR and SfS-estimated cross-sectional areas (from Shah’s method) was found to be within 20% of the measured resistance.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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