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Research Papers

A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Material Removal Mechanisms in Vibration Assisted Nano Impact-Machining by Loose Abrasives

[+] Author and Article Information
Sagil James

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
California State University,
Fullerton, CA 92834

Murali Sundaram

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH 45221
e-mail: murali.sundaram@uc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 19, 2016; final manuscript received April 17, 2017; published online May 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(8), 081014 (May 11, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1452; doi: 10.1115/1.4036559 History: Received August 19, 2016; Revised April 17, 2017

Vibration assisted nano impact-machining by loose abrasives (VANILA) is a novel nanomachining process to perform target-specific nano abrasive machining of hard and brittle materials. In this study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed to understand the nanoscale material removal mechanisms involved in the VANILA process. The simulation results revealed that the material removal for the given impact conditions happens primarily in ductile mode through three distinct mechanisms, which are nanocutting, nanoplowing, and nanocracking. It was found that domination by any of these mechanisms over the other mechanisms during the material removal process depends on the impact conditions, such as angle of impact and the initial kinetic energy of the abrasive grain. The transition zone from nanocutting to nanoplowing is observed at angle of impact of near 60 deg, while the transition from the nanocutting and nanoplowing mechanisms to nanocracking mechanism is observed for initial abrasive kinetic energies of about 600–700 eV. In addition, occasional lip formation and material pile-up are observed in the impact zone along with amorphous phase transformation. A material removal mechanism map is constructed to illustrate the effects of the impacts conditions on the material removal mechanism. Confirmatory experimentation on silicon and borosilicate glass substrates showed that all the three nanoscale mechanisms are possible, and the nanoplowing is the most common mechanism. It was also found that the material removal rate (MRR) values are found to be highest when the material is removed through nanocracking mechanism and is found to be lowest when the material removal happens through nanocutting mechanism.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the VANILA process: (a) vibrating tool hammers the diamond nanoparticles, (b) nanoparticle impact the workpiece surface causing material removal, and (c) repeated impacts of diamond nanoparticles resulting in nanocavity formation on workpiece surface

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Fig. 2

Pattern design and AFM image of nanocavity pattern machined using the VANILA process on borosilicate glass substrate [6]

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Fig. 3

Tool tip dynamics during the VANILA process

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Fig. 4

Schematic of MDS model of VANILA process: (a) 3D view and (b) sectional view

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Fig. 8

Effect of angle of impact (θ) on the material removal mechanism in the VANILA process—angle of impact: (a) 40 deg and (b) 80 deg for an initial kinetic energy of 500 eV and duration of 1 ps

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Fig. 9

Effect of initial kinetic energy on material removal mechanism in the VANILA process—initial kinetic energy: (a) 200 eV and (b) 800 eV for an angle of impact of 70 deg and duration of 1 ps

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Fig. 10

Material removal mechanism map of the VANILA process showing possible impact conditions for different nanoscale material removal mechanisms

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Fig. 11

Experimental setup (inset: fluid cell)

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Fig. 12

Topography and cross section of representative machined nanocavities on (a) silicon and (b) borosilicate glass

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Fig. 13

Nanocavities machined through nanocutting on (a) silicon and (b) borosilicate glass

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Fig. 14

Nanocavities machined through nanocracking on (a) silicon and (b) borosilicate glass

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