Research Papers

Investigation on Weld Pool Dynamics in Laser Welding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel With an Interface Gap Via a Three-Dimensional Dynamic Model and Experiments

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyung-Min Hong

Center for Laser-based Manufacturing,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: hong138@purdue.edu

Yung C. Shin

Fellow ASME
Center for Laser-based Manufacturing,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: shin@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 9, 2017; final manuscript received March 27, 2017; published online May 8, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(8), 081008 (May 08, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1086; doi: 10.1115/1.4036521 History: Received February 09, 2017; Revised March 27, 2017

This paper reports on numerical and experimental investigations involving examination of the effects of an interfacial gap in the range of 0–0.3 mm on keyhole and molten pool dynamics. A numerical model was developed to investigate the three-dimensional transient dynamics of the keyhole in lap welding processes with an interface gap. The model was able to reliably predict the weld profile. In addition, the modeling results provided detailed information regarding the interaction between the molten pool and the solid/liquid boundary that led to the extended weld width. Experimentally, AISI 304 stainless steel was joined in a lap welding configuration using an IPG YLR-1000 fiber laser. The tensile shear and T-peel testing of the lap joints showed that adding an adequate amount of interface gap improves weld strength.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the laser welding system

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the boundary conditions used in the fine-mesh domain

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Fig. 7

Evolution of the keyhole of case 1 (partial penetration, interface gap of 0 mm): (a) 3.00 ms, (b) 10.00 ms, and (c) 12.50 ms

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional simulation of laser welding with an interface gap (case 4 simulated with laser pointer along the −y direction)

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Fig. 5

The weld width at the interface versus the interface gap (error bar indicates the measurements from repeated tests)

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Fig. 6

Graphical comparison of weld shapes for (a) case 1: P = 1000 W, V = 2 m/min, gap = 0 mm, (b) case 4: P = 1000 W, V = 2 m/min, gap = 0.1 mm, and (c) case 10: P = 1000 W, V = 1 m/min, gap = 0.1 mm

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Fig. 3

Initial level-set values used to track the free surface (interface gap of 0.1 mm)

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Fig. 8

Evolution of the keyhole of case 4 during merging of the top and bottom plates (partial penetration, interface gap of 0.1 mm): (a) 8.84 ms, (b) 8.92 ms, (c) 9.00 ms, (d) 9.08 ms, (e) 9.16 ms, (f) 9.28 ms, (g) 9.44 ms, and (h) 9.6 ms

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Fig. 9

Simulation result of case 10 at t = 22.86 ms (full penetration, interface gap of 0.1 mm)

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Fig. 10

Velocity profile of the molten pool in the Y–Z plane (t = 10.00 ms) (a) case 1 and (b) case 4

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Fig. 13

Load-displacement curve of the partially penetrated AISI 304 stainless steel joint in the tensile shear test

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Fig. 11

Simulation results from case 5 (P = 1000 W, V = 2 m/min, gap = 0.2 mm)

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Fig. 12

Cross section of welds from case 5 (P = 1000 W, V = 2 m/min, gap = 0.2 mm) (a) first cross section 30% of total weld length and (b) second cross section 60% of total weld length



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