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Research Papers

Investigation of the Transient Characteristics for Laser Cladding Beads Using 420 Stainless Steel Powder

[+] Author and Article Information
S. M. Saqib

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: saqibs@uwindsor.ca

R. J. Urbanic

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical, Automotive,
and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: jurbanic@uwindsor.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 16, 2016; final manuscript received March 17, 2017; published online May 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(8), 081009 (May 10, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1168; doi: 10.1115/1.4036488 History: Received March 16, 2016; Revised March 17, 2017

To understand the different aspects of the laser cladding (LC) process, process models can be of aid. Presently, the correct parameter settings for different manufacturing processes, such as machining and casting, are based on simulation tools that can evaluate the influence of the process parameters for different conditions. However, there are no comprehensive, focused simulation process planning tools available for the LC process. In the past, most of the research has focused on the experimentally based optimization strategies for a process configuration, typically for a single track bead in steady-state conditions. However, an understanding of realistic transient conditions needs to be explored for effective process planning simulation tools and build strategies to be developed. A set of cladding experiments have been performed for single and multiple bead scenarios, and the effects of the transient conditions on the bead geometry for these scenarios have been investigated. It is found that the lead-in and lead-out conditions differ, corner geometry influences the bead height, and when changing the input power levels, the geometry values oscillate differently than the input pulses. Changes in the bead geometry are inherent when depositing material; consequently, real-time adjustments for the process setting are essential. The dynamic, time varying heating and solidification, for multiple layer scenarios, leads to challenging process planning and real-time control strategies.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of laser cladding process [2]

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Fig. 2

(a) Single/multiple pass laser cladding operation and (b) repair work/overlap laser cladding operation-surface coating [3]

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Fig. 3

Inputs, processes, and output parameters are shown with powder injection laser cladding

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Fig. 4

Block with 50% overlaps. Note the influence of stopping and starting at the same point and introducing an adaptable stop-start solution. (Adapted with permission from Hedrick et al. [6]. Copyright 2015 by Elsevier).

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Fig. 5

Flow chart of the experimental plan for this research and the future work

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Fig. 6

Single bead clad (“I” and “O” represents lead-in and lead-out directions, respectively)

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Fig. 7

The instantaneous melt pool width variations (10 mm/s travel speed)

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Fig. 8

(a) Schematic diagram of a sectioned bead and (b) longitudinal section view of the transient bead with 3 kW–4 kW–3 kW power

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Fig. 9

(a) Cross-sectional view of the same 50% overlap beads and (b) full length cladded sample (top view) and cut through middle

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Fig. 10

Longitudinal cross-sectional view of the middle bead of the three-bead overlap sample

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Fig. 11

(a) Longitudinal EDM cut of the 3 × 4 bead stack sample and (b) cross section views of all three sections—each view contains four layers of stack—enlarged view is also shown

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Fig. 12

Cross section views of a single bead (a) lead-in and (b) lead-out conditions

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Fig. 13

Single bead samples with different configurations (a) obtuse angled, (b) right angled, and (c) acute angled

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Fig. 14

Three different sectional views of obtuse angled configuration using Fig. 13(a)

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Fig. 15

Average bead width for the step intervals, where the overall average width for the 2.6 kW level = 2.89 mm, and the average width for the 3.6 kW power level = 3.95 mm

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Fig. 16

FFT for the single bead, 2 s step intervals, showing dominate frequencies at 0.23, 0.69, and 1.22 Hz or 4.35, 1.45, and 0.82 s, respectively. The mean value is recorded at the 0 Hz point.

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Fig. 17

Spectrogram of the frequency of the bead width deposited at 2 s interval

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Fig. 18

Segmented view of the height and penetration of the single bead transient layer

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Fig. 19

(a) Longitudinal transition sample shows the variations in height and penetration in sections, star symbols indicate the average height and penetration in each section and (b) segmented bead width

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Fig. 20

(a) Transition sample of 3 × 4 stack shows the variations in height and penetration and (b) segmented views of the (i) first bead, (ii) second bead, and (iii) third bead of the 3 × 4 bead stack

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Fig. 21

Bead heights vary in lead-in and lead-out situations using mirrored data (a) single bead, (b) overlap bead, (c) first bead of 3 × 4 stack, (d) second bead of 3 × 4 stack, and (e) third bead of 3 × 4 stack

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Fig. 22

Deposited bead profile in the beginning (lead-in) and in the end (lead-out) of a single track

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Fig. 23

The bead geometry variations: (a) height, (b) width, and (c) penetration based on the bead deposition flow direction and corner configurations

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Fig. 24

Standard deviations are shown for all corner configurations

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Fig. 25

Bead height versus CTWD (from steady-state experiments presented in Table 2)

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Fig. 26

A solid block was cladded with modified stop-start conditions, note the corners

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Fig. 27

Schematic view of 40 deg angular deposition

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Fig. 28

Four different cladded models with angular deposition

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