Research Papers

Radial Error Motion Measurement of Ultraprecision Axes of Rotation With Nanometer Level Precision

[+] Author and Article Information
Qiang Shu

Institute of Systems Engineering,
China Academy of Engineering Physics,
Miansan Road No. 64,
Mianyang 621999, China
e-mail: qiangzhongshu@126.com

Mingzhi Zhu

Institute of Systems Engineering,
China Academy of Engineering Physics,
Miansan Road No. 64,
Mianyang 621999, China
e-mail: 409shuq@caep.cn

XingBao Liu

Institute of Mechanical Manufacturing and Technology,
China Academy of Engineering Physics,
Miansan Road No. 64,
Mianyang 621999, China
e-mail: 492235990@qq.com

Heng Cheng

Institute of Mechanical Manufacturing and Technology,
China Academy of Engineering Physics,
Miansan Road No. 64,
Mianyang 621999, China
e-mail: tech_endless@163.com

Manuscript received September 10, 2016; final manuscript received March 19, 2017; published online April 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Laine Mears.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(7), 071017 (Apr 18, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1494; doi: 10.1115/1.4036349 History: Received September 10, 2016; Revised March 19, 2017

Error motion of an ultraprecision axis of rotation has great influences on form error of machined parts. This paper gives a complete error analysis for the measurement procedure including nonlinearity error of capacitive displacement probes, misalignment error of the probes, eccentric error of artifact balls, environmental error, and error caused by different error separation methods. Nonlinearity of the capacitive displacement probe targeting a spherical surface is investigated through experiments. It is found that the additional probe output caused by lateral offset of the probe relative to the artifact ball greatly affects the measurement accuracy. Furthermore, it is shown that error motions in radial and axial directions together with eccentric rotation of the artifact lead to lateral offset. A novel measurement setup which integrates an encoder and an adjustable artifact is designed to ensure measurement repeatability by a zero index signal from the encoder. Moreover, based on the measurement setup, once roundness of the artifact is calibrated, roundness of the artifact can be accurately compensated when radial error motion is measured, and this method improves measurement efficiency while approaches accuracy comparable to that of error separation methods implemented alone. Donaldson reversal and three-probe error separation methods were implemented, and the maximum difference of the results of the two methods is below 14 nm. Procedure of uncertainty estimation of radial error motion is given in detail by analytical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The combined uncertainty of radial error motion measurement of an aerostatic spindle with Donaldson reversal and three-probe methods is 14.8 nm and 13.9 nm (coverage k = 2), respectively.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Errors , Probes , Uncertainty
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Fig. 1

Error motion of a rotation axis

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Fig. 2

Illustration of synchronous and unsychrounous motion

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Fig. 3

Donaldson reversal error separating method

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Fig. 4

Multistep error separating method

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Fig. 5

Three-probe method for separating form error of artifact

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Fig. 6

Experiment setup for error separating methods

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Fig. 7

Compensating form error of using an encoder to indicate the starting point of roundness

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Fig. 8

Experiment setup to investigate nonlinearity of capacitive probes targeting ball surface

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Fig. 9

Probe readings of a spherical surface versus that of a flat surface

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Fig. 10

The capacitive probe output characteristic when moving different lateral distances

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Fig. 11

Experiment data to identify output characteristic of the capacitive probe when moving toward to a spherical surface at different lateral offset distances

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Fig. 12

Residual error after removing the first-order component from the simulated signal under different indexing error bounds

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Fig. 13

Eccentric error induced lateral offset

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Fig. 14

General misalignment between the probe and the artifact

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Fig. 15

Environmental errors when the spindle is stationary: (a) thermal drift and the filtered data, (b) the corresponding frequency distribution, and (c) the corresponding temperature

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Fig. 16

Illustration of positioning error of Donaldson reversal method: (a) positioning error of the artifact ball and (b) positioning error of the probe

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Fig. 17

Standard deviation of measurement error caused by angular errors of measurement setup

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Fig. 18

Radial error motion of spindle using Donald reversal and three-probe methods

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Fig. 19

Roundness of artifact ball using Donald reversal and three-probe methods

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Fig. 20

Radial error motion of spindle in frequency domain using Donald reversal and three-probe methods

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Fig. 21

Radial error motion of the spindle of a diamond lathe using compensating roundness method

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Fig. 22

Roundness of the same artifact using Donaldson reversal method on a diamond lathe

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Fig. 23

Procedures of radial error motion determination




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