0
Research Papers

Numerical Modeling of Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Level Set Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Qian Ye

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: qian.ye@stonybrook.edu

Shikui Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11790
e-mail: shikui.chen@stonybrook.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 30, 2016; final manuscript received February 9, 2017; published online April 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(7), 071019 (Apr 18, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1621; doi: 10.1115/1.4036290 History: Received November 30, 2016; Revised February 09, 2017

The advance in computational science and engineering allows people to simulate the additive manufacturing (AM) process at high fidelity, which has turned out to be a valid way to model, predict, and even design the AM processes. In this paper, we propose a new method to simulate the melting process of metal powder-based AM. The governing physics is described using partial differential equations for heat transfer and Laminar flow. Level set methods are applied to track the free surface motion of the molten metal flow. Some fundamental issues in the metal-based AM process, including free surface evolution, phase transitions, and velocity field calculation, are explored, which help us gain insight into the metal-based AM process. The convergence problem is also examined to improve the efficiency in solving this multiphysics problem.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schoinochoritis, B. , Chantzis, D. , and Salonitis, K. , 2015, “ Simulation of Metallic Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing Processes With the Finite Element Method: A Critical Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 231(1), pp. 1–22.
Baufeld, B. , Biest, O. V. D. , and Gault, R. , 2010, “ Additive Manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V Components by Shaped Metal Deposition: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties,” Mater. Des., 31(Suppl 1), pp. S106–S111. [CrossRef]
Guo, N. , and Leu, M. C. , 2013, “ Additive Manufacturing: Technology, Applications and Research Needs,” Front. Mech. Eng., 8(3), pp. 215–243. [CrossRef]
Attar, E. , 2011, “ Simulation of Selective Electron Beam Melting Processes,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Kruth, J.-P. , Levy, G. , Klocke, F. , and Childs, T. , 2007, “ Consolidation Phenomena in Laser and Powder-Bed Based Layered Manufacturing,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 56(2), pp. 730–759. [CrossRef]
Das, S. , 2003, “ Physical Aspects of Process Control in Selective Laser Sintering of Metals,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 5(10), pp. 701–711. [CrossRef]
Pinkerton, A. J. , and Li, L. , 2004, “ Modelling the Geometry of a Moving Laser Melt Pool and Deposition Track Via Energy and Mass Balances,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 37(14), p. 1885. [CrossRef]
Chande, T. , and Mazumder, J. , 1985, “ Two-Dimensional, Transient Model for Mass Transport in Laser Surface Alloying,” J. Appl. Phys., 57(6), pp. 2226–2232. [CrossRef]
Fan, Z. , and Liou, F. , 2012, “ Numerical Modeling of the Additive Manufacturing (am) Processes of Titanium Alloy,” Titanium Alloys–Towards Achieving Enhanced Properties for Diversified Applications, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. pp. 3–28.
Voller, V., Mouchmov, A., and Cross, M., 2004, “ An Explicit Scheme for Coupling Temperature and Concentration Fields in Solidification Models,” Appl. Math. Model., 28(1), pp. 79–94.
Osher, S. , and Fedkiw, R. P. , 2001, “ Level Set Methods: An Overview and Some Recent Results,” J. Comput. Phys., 169(2), pp. 463–502. [CrossRef]
Chung, H. , and Das, S. , 2003, “ Level Set Methods for Modeling Laser Melting of Metals,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, Aug. 4–6, Vol. 1001, pp. 227–232.
Li, C. , Xu, C. , Gui, C. , and Fox, M. D. , 2005, “ Level Set Evolution Without Re-Initialization: A New Variational Formulation,” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), San Diego, CA, June 20–25, pp. 430–436.
Sethian, J. A. , 1999, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving Interfaces in Computational Geometry, Fluid Mechanics, Computer Vision, and Materials Science, Vol. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Han, L. , Liou, F. W. , and Musti, S. , 2005, “ Thermal Behavior and Geometry Model of Melt Pool in Laser Material Process,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(9), pp. 1005–1014. [CrossRef]
Marin, T. , 2006, “ Solidification of a Liquid Metal Droplet Impinging on a Cold Surface,” COMSOL Users Conference, Boston, MA, Oct. 22–24, pp. 391–398.
Goyal, P. , Dutta, A. , Verma, V. , and Singh, I. T. R. , 2013, “ Enthalpy Porosity Method for CFD Simulation of Natural Convection Phenomenon for Phase Change Problems in the Molten Pool and its Importance During Melting of Solids,” COMSOL Conference, Bangalore, India, Oct. 17–18.
Qi, H. , Mazumder, J. , and Ki, H. , 2006, “ Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Coaxial Laser Cladding Process for Direct Metal Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys., 100(2), p. 024903. [CrossRef]
Han, L. , and Liou, F. , 2004, “ Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Laser Beam Mode on Melt Pool,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(19–20), pp. 4385–4402. [CrossRef]
Belhamadia, Y. , Kane, A. S. , and Fortin, A. , 2012, “ An Enhanced Mathematical Model for Phase Change Problems With Natural Convection,” Int. J. Numer. Anal. Model., 3(2), pp. 192–206.
Vásquez, F. , Ramos-Grez, J. A. , and Walczak, M. , 2012, “ Multiphysics Simulation of Laser–Material Interaction During Laser Powder Deposition,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 59(9), pp. 1037–1045. [CrossRef]
Osher, S. , and Fedkiw, R. , 2003, Level Set Methods and Dynamic Implicit Surfaces, Vol. 153, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Grzybowski, H. , and Mosdorf, R. , 2014, “ Modelling of Two-Phase Flow in a Minichannel Using Level-Set Method,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 530, p. 012049. [CrossRef]
Zimmerman, W. B. , 2006, Multiphysics Modeling With Finite Element Methods (Series on Stability, Vibration and Control of Systems, Series), World Scientific, Singapore.
Desmaison, O. , Bellet, M. , and Guillemot, G. , 2014, “ A Level Set Approach for the Simulation of the Multipass Hybrid Laser/GMA Welding Process,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 91, pp. 240–250. [CrossRef]
Han, L. , Phatak, K. , and Liou, F. , 2004, “ Modeling of Laser Cladding With Powder Injection,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 35(6), pp. 1139–1150. [CrossRef]
Mills, K. C. , 2002, Recommended Values of Thermophysical Properties for Selected Commercial Alloys, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, p. 320.
Chen, S. , Merriman, B. , Osher, S. , and Smereka, P. , 1997, “ A Simple Level Set Method for Solving Stefan Problems,” J. Comput. Phys., 135(1), pp. 8–29. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Gong, X. , and Chou, K. , 2016, “ Review on Powder-Bed Laser Additive Manufacturing of Inconel 718 Parts,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, (epub).
Kruth, J.-P. , Deckers, J. , Yasa, E. , and Wauthlé, R. , 2012, “ Assessing and Comparing Influencing Factors of Residual Stresses in Selective Laser Melting Using a Novel Analysis Method,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 226(6), pp. 980–991. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simulation of selective electron beam melting processes [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Power intensity distribution of laser beam

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simulating results of melting and spreading of a single particle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Heat capacity of latent heat at t = 0.5 ms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature contours and interface changes at different times: (a) t = 0.10 ms and (b) t = 1.1 ms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution of the melt pool geometry, temperature contours, velocity fields, and liquid friction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Convergence plots of the full coupled solver and the segregated solver

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In