0
Research Papers

Modeling the Flow Behavior and Flow Rate of Medium Viscosity Alginate for Scaffold Fabrication With a Three-Dimensional Bioplotter

[+] Author and Article Information
Md. Sarker

Division of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: mas921@mail.usask.ca

X. B. Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada;
Division of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca

Manuscript received October 7, 2016; final manuscript received March 3, 2017; published online April 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(8), 081002 (Apr 20, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1535; doi: 10.1115/1.4036226 History: Received October 07, 2016; Revised March 03, 2017

Tissue regeneration with scaffolds has proven promising for the repair of damaged tissues or organs. Dispensing-based printing techniques for scaffold fabrication have drawn considerable attention due to their ability to create complex structures layer-by-layer. When employing such printing techniques, the flow rate of the biomaterial dispensed from the needle tip is critical for creating the intended scaffold structure. The flow rate can be affected by a number of variables including the material flow behavior, temperature, needle geometry, and dispensing pressure. As such, model equations can play a vital role in the prediction and control of the flow rate of the material dispensed, thus facilitating optimal scaffold fabrication. This paper presents the development of a model to represent the flow rate of medium viscosity alginate dispensed for the purpose of scaffold fabrication, by taking into account the shear and slip flow from a tapered needle. Because the fluid flow behavior affects the flow rate, model equations were also developed from regression of experimental data to represent the flow behavior of alginate. The predictions from both the flow behavior equation and flow rate model show close agreement with experimental results. For varying needle diameters and temperatures, the slip effect occurring at the needle wall has a significant effect on the flow rate of alginate during scaffold fabrication.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

den Braber, E. T. , de Ruijter, J. E. , Smits, H. T. , Ginsel, L. A. , von Recum, A. F. , and Jansen, J. A. , 1996, “ Quantitative Analysis of Cell Proliferation and Orientation on Substrata With Uniform Parallel Surface Micro-Grooves,” Biomaterials, 17(11), pp. 1093–1099. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kruyt, M. C. , de Bruijn, J. D. , Wilson, C. E. , Oner, F. C. , van Blitterswijk, C. A. , Verbout, A. J. , and Dhert, W. J. A. , 2003, “ Viable Osteogenic Cells Are Obligatory for Tissue-Engineered Ectopic Bone Formation in Goats,” Tissue Eng., 9(2), pp. 327–336. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Snyder, J. , Rin Son, A. , Hamid, Q. , and Sun, W. , 2015, “ Fabrication of Microfluidic Manifold by Precision Extrusion Deposition and Replica Molding for Cell-Laden Device,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Wüst, S. , Müller, R. , and Hofmann, S. , 2011, “ Controlled Positioning of Cells in Biomaterials—Approaches Towards 3D Tissue Printing,” J. Funct. Biomater., 2(4), pp. 119–154. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sarker, M. , Chen, X. B. , and Schreyer, D. J. , 2015, “ Experimental Approaches to Vascularisation Within Tissue Engineering Constructs,” J. Biomater. Sci. Polym. Ed., 26(12), pp. 683–734. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lanzotti, A. , Martorelli, M. , and Staiano, G. , 2015, “ Understanding Process Parameter Effects of RepRap Open-Source Three-Dimensional Printers Through a Design of Experiments Approach,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(1), p. 011017. [CrossRef]
Nicodemus, G. D. , and Bryant, S. J. , 2008, “ Cell Encapsulation in Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications,” Tissue Eng., Part B: Rev., 14(2), pp. 149–165. [CrossRef]
Selmi, M. , Khemiri, R. , Echouchene, F. , and Belmabrouk, H. , 2016, “ Enhancement of the Analyte Mass Transport in a Microfluidic Biosensor by Deformation of Fluid Flow and Electrothermal Force,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(8), p. 081011. [CrossRef]
Nakamura, M. , Iwanaga, S. , Henmi, C. , Arai, K. , and Nishiyama, Y. , 2010, “ Biomatrices and Biomaterials for Future Developments of Bioprinting and Biofabrication,” Biofabrication, 2(1), p. 014110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Malda, J. , Visser, J. , Melchels, F. P. , Jüngst, T. , Hennink, W. E. , Dhert, W. J. A. , Groll, J. , and Hutmacher, D. W. , 2013, “ 25th Anniversary Article: Engineering Hydrogels for Biofabrication,” Adv. Mater., 25(36), pp. 5011–5028. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schuurman, W. , Levett, P. A. , Pot, M. W. , van Weeren, P. R. , Dhert, W. J. A. , Hutmacher, D. W. , Melchels, F. P. W. , Klein, T. J. , and Malda, J. , 2013, “ Gelatin-Methacrylamide Hydrogels as Potential Biomaterials for Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs,” Macromol. Biosci., 13(5), pp. 551–561. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jia, J. , Richards, D. J. , Pollard, S. , Tan, Y. , Rodriguez, J. , Visconti, R. P. , Trusk, T. C. , Yost, M. J. , Yao, H. , Markwald, R. R. , and Mei, Y. , 2014, “ Engineering Alginate as Bioink for Bioprinting,” Acta Biomater., 10(10), pp. 4323–4331. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rouwkema, J. , Rivron, N. C. , and van Blitterswijk, C. A. , 2008, “ Vascularization in Tissue Engineering,” Trends Biotechnol., 26(8), pp. 434–441. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Murphy, C. M. , Haugh, M. G. , and O'Brien, F. J. , 2010, “ The Effect of Mean Pore Size on Cell Attachment, Proliferation and Migration in Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 31(3), pp. 461–466. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Karageorgiou, V. , and Kaplan, D. , 2005, “ Porosity of 3D Biomaterial Scaffolds and Osteogenesis,” Biomaterials, 26(27), pp. 5474–5491. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Martinez-Padilla, L. P. , and Hardy, J. , 1989, “ Quantifying Thixotropy of Béchamel Sauce Under Constant Shear Stress by Phenomenological and Empirical Models,” J. Texture Stud., 20(1), pp. 71–85. [CrossRef]
Cheng, D. C.-H. , and Evans, F. , 1965, “ Phenomenological Characterization of the Rheological Behaviour of Inelastic Reversible Thixotropic and Antithixotropic Fluids,” Br. J. Appl. Phys., 16(11), pp. 1599–1617. [CrossRef]
De Kee, D. , 1983, “ Flow Properties of Time-Dependent Foodstuffs,” J. Rheol., 27(6), pp. 581–604. [CrossRef]
Fong, C. F. C. M. , Turcotte, G. , and De Kee, D. , 1996, “ Modelling Steady and Transient Rheological Properties,” J. Food Eng., 27(1), pp. 63–70. [CrossRef]
Taghizadeh, M. , and Razavi, S. M. A. , 2009, “ Modeling Time-Independent Rheological Behavior of Pistachio Butter,” Int. J. Food Prop., 12(2), pp. 331–340. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. B. , and Ke, H. , 2006, “ Effects of Fluid Properties on Dispensing Processes for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., 29(2), pp. 75–82. [CrossRef]
Tian, X. Y. , Li, M. G. , Cao, N. , Li, J. W. , and Chen, X. B. , 2009, “ Characterization of the Flow Behavior of Alginate/Hydroxyapatite Mixtures for Tissue Scaffold Fabrication,” Biofabrication, 1(4), p. 045005. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kwong, C. K. , and Bai, H. , 2005, “ Fuzzy Regression Approach to Process Modelling and Optimization of Epoxy Dispensing,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 43(12), pp. 2359–2375. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. B. , Zhang, W. J. , Schoenau, G. , and Surgenor, B. , 2003, “ Off-Line Control of Time-Pressure Dispensing Processes for Electronics Packaging,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., 26(4), pp. 286–293. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. B. , Shoenau, G. , and Zhang, W. J. , 2000, “ Modeling of Time-Pressure Fluid Dispensing Processes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., 23(4), pp. 300–305. [CrossRef]
Razban, A. , and Davies, B. L. , 1995, “ Analytical Modelling of the Automated Dispensing of Adhesive Materials,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 9(11), pp. 1435–1450. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. B. , Schoenau, G. , and Zhang, W. J. , 2002, “ On the Flow Rate Dynamics in Time-Pressure Dispensing Processes,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 124(4), pp. 693–698. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y.-X. , Li, H.-X. , Ding, H. , and Xiong, Y.-L. , 2005, “ Integrated Modelling of a Time-Pressure Fluid Dispensing System for Electronics Manufacturing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 26(1–2), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Zohdi, T. I. , 2015, “ On Necessary Pumping Pressures for Industrial Process-Driven Particle-Laden Fluid Flows,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(3), p. 031009. [CrossRef]
Cohen, Y. , 1985, “ Apparent Slip Flow of Polymer Solutions,” J. Rheol., 29(1), pp. 67–102. [CrossRef]
Yilmazer, U. , 1989, “ Slip Effects in Capillary and Parallel Disk Torsional Flows of Highly Filled Suspensions,” J. Rheol., 33(8), pp. 1197–1212. [CrossRef]
Kalyon, D. M. , 1993, “ Rheological Behavior of a Concentrated Suspension: A Solid Rocket Fuel Simulant,” J. Rheol., 37(1), pp. 35–53. [CrossRef]
Smay, J. E. , Cesarano, J. , and Lewis, J. A. , 2002, “ Colloidal Inks for Directed Assembly of 3-D Periodic Structures,” Langmuir, 18(14), pp. 5429–5437. [CrossRef]
Li, M. , Tian, X. , Schreyer, D. J. , and Chen, X. , 2009, “ Effect of Needle Geometry on Flow Rate and Cell Damage in the Dispensing-Based Biofabrication Process,” Biotechnol. Prog., 27(6), pp. 1777–1784. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. B. , Li, M. G. , and Ke, H. , 2008, “ Modeling of the Flow Rate in the Dispensing-Based Process for Fabricating Tissue Scaffolds,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 130(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Kozicki, W. , Chou, C. H. , and Tiu, C. , 1966, “ Non-Newtonian Flow in Ducts of Arbitrary Cross-Sectional Shape,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 21(8), pp. 665–679. [CrossRef]
Chang, G. S. , Koo, J. S. , and Song, K. W. , 2003, “ Wall Slip of Vaseline in Steady Shear Rheometry,” Korea Aust. Rheol. J., 15(2), pp. 55–61.
You, F. , Wu, X. , Zhu, N. , Lei, M. , Eames, B. F. , and Chen, X. , 2016, “ 3D Printing of Porous Cell-Laden Hydrogel Constructs for Potential Applications in Cartilage Tissue Engineering,” ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng., 2(7), pp. 1200–1210. [CrossRef]
Devi, D. A. , Smitha, B. , Sridhar, S. , Jawalkar, S. S. , and Aminabhavi, T. M. , 2007, “ Novel Sodium Alginate/Polyethyleneimine Polyion Complex Membranes for Pervaporation Dehydration at the Azeotropic Composition of Various Alcohols,” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 82(11), pp. 993–1003. [CrossRef]
Johann, R. M. , and Renaud, P. , 2007, “ Microfluidic Patterning of Alginate Hydrogels.,” Biointerphases, 2(2), pp. 73–79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Izadifar, M. , Kelly, M. E. , Haddadi, A. , and Chen, X. , 2015, “ Optimization of Nanoparticles for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering,” Nanotechnology, 26(23), p. 235301. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nichetti, D. , and Manas-Zloczower, I. , 1998, “ Viscosity Model for Polydisperse Polymer Melts,” J. Rheol., 42(4), pp. 951–969. [CrossRef]
Gupta, R. K. , 2000, Polymer and Composite Rheology, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York.
Khan, A. U. , Briscoe, B. J. , and Luckham, P. F. , 2001, “ Evaluation of Slip in Capillary Extrusion of Ceramic Pastes,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 21(4), pp. 483–491. [CrossRef]
Cogswell, F. N. , 1972, “ Converging Flow of Polymer Melts in Extrusion Dies,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 12(1), pp. 64–73. [CrossRef]
Sahai, N. , and Tewari, R. P. , 2015, “ Characterization of Effective Mechanical Strength of Chitosan Porous Tissue Scaffolds Using Computer Aided Tissue Engineering,” Int. J. Biomed. Eng. Sci., 2(1), pp. 21–28.
Du, Y. , Ghodousi, M. , Qi, H. , Haas, N. , Xiao, W. , and Khademhosseini, A. , 2011, “ Sequential Assembly of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Constructs to Engineer Vascular-Like Microchannels,” Biotechnol. Bioeng., 108(7), pp. 1693–1703. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Barnes, H. A. , 1995, “ A Review of the Slip (Wall Depletion) of Polymer Solutions, Emulsions and Particle Suspensions in Viscometers: Its Cause, Character, and Cure,” J. Nonnewtonian Fluid Mech., 56(3), pp. 221–251. [CrossRef]
Franco, J. M. , Gallegos, C. , and Barnes, H. A. , 1998, “ On Slip Effects in Steady-State Flow Measurements of Oil-in-Water Food Emulsions,” J. Food Eng., 36(1), pp. 89–102. [CrossRef]
Chen, L. , Duan, Y. , Zhao, C. , and Yang, L. , 2009, “ Rheological Behavior and Wall Slip of Concentrated Coal Water Slurry in Pipe Flows,” Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif., 48(7), pp. 1241–1248. [CrossRef]
Granick, S. , Zhu, Y. , and Lee, H. , 2003, “ Slippery Questions About Complex Fluids Flowing Past Solids,” Nat. Mater., 2(4), pp. 221–227. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Graham, M. D. , 1995, “ Wall Slip and the Nonlinear Dynamics of Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Flows,” J. Rheol., 39(4), pp. 697–712. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Brookfield DV-III ultra rheometer and (b) its spindle and loading cup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dispensing-based rapid prototyping machine for 3D scaffold fabrication: (a) 3D bioplotter, (b) bioplotter dispensing head, (c) tapered needle for dispensing head, (d) tapered needle with scale for length, (e) entrance diameter, and (f) 2% (w/v) alginate solution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of 3D scaffold fabrication by bioplotter, (b) multiple layered alginate scaffold (scale bar = 0.2 mm), (c) printed alginate scaffold suspended in CaCl2 crosslinking solution, and (d) side view and (e) top view of the printed alginate scaffold

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of spindle cone and loading cup of Brookfield DV-III ultra rheometer; velocity profiles of alginate in the needle for boundary conditions (b) without slip and (c) and (d) with slip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of a tapered needle for a bioplotter head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow behavior curve for medium viscosity alginate: (a) 1%, (b) 2%, (c) 3%, and (d) 4%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Flow behavior parameters of medium viscosity alginate (1–4%) at various temperatures (25–55 °C): (a) consistency index, (b) yield stress, and (c) flow index

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental versus model-predicted flow behavior of 2.5% (w/v) alginate at different temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55 °C): (a) consistency index, (b) yield stress, and (c) flow index; comparison plots (with diagonal line of equality) of measured and predicted data for (d) consistency index, (e) yield stress, and (f) flow index; experimental data are statistically significant (n = 3, p < 0.05)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental versus model-predicted mass flow rate through a tapered needle (0.2 mm exit diameter) at 25 °C and various dispensing pressures (20, 25, 30, and 40 kPa) for (a) 2%, (b) 3%, and (c) 4% (w/v) alginate; comparison plot (with diagonal line of equality) of measured and predicted mass flow rate data for models (d) without slip and (e) with slip; and (f) distribution of residual prediction errors of mass flow rate data for model with slip (f); experimental data are statistically significant (n = 3, p < 0.05)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Bioplotter printed versus model-predicted strand width (with slip) for a tapered dispensing needle (0.2 mm exit diameter) at different dispensing pressures (20, 30, 40, and 50 kPa), needle speeds (6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 mm/s), and alginate concentrations of (a) 4% and (d) 3% (w/v); comparison plot (with diagonal line of equality) of measured and predicted strand width data for alginate concentrations of (b) 4% and (e) 3% (w/v); and distribution of residual prediction errors of strand width data for alginate concentrations of (c) 4% and (f) 3% (w/v). Experimental data are statistically significant for same needle speed and different dispensing pressures (n = 3; p < 0.05).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Model-predicted versus experimental mass flow rate of alginate (2% w/v) through a tapered needle with varying exit diameters (0.2, 0.25, 0.41, and 0.61 mm) at different temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55 °C) and dispensing pressures of (a) 20 and (d) 30 kPa; comparison (with diagonal line of equality) of measured and predicted flow rates at dispensing pressures of (b) 20 and (e) 30 kPa; and distribution of residual prediction errors of flow rates at dispensing pressures of (c) 20 and (f) 30 kPa

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In