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Research Papers

Residual Stress Distribution in Silicon Wafers Machined by Rotational Grinding

[+] Author and Article Information
Ping Zhou

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional
Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: pzhou@dlut.edu.cn

Ying Yan, Ning Huang, Ziguang Wang, Renke Kang, Dongming Guo

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional
Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 21, 2016; final manuscript received February 12, 2017; published online May 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(8), 081012 (May 10, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1608; doi: 10.1115/1.4036125 History: Received November 21, 2016; Revised February 12, 2017

Subsurface damage (SSD) and grinding damage-induced stress (GDIS) are a focus of attention in the study of grinding mechanisms. Our previous study proposed a load identification method and analyzed the GDIS in a silicon wafer ground (Zhou et al., 2016, “A Load Identification Method for the GDIS Distribution in Silicon Wafers,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 107, pp. 1–7.). In this paper, a more concise method for GDIS analysis is proposed. The new method is based on the curvature analysis of the chip deformation, and a deterministic solution of residual stress can be derived out. Relying on the new method, this study investigates the GDIS distribution feature in the silicon wafer ground by a #600 diamond wheel (average grit size 24 μm). The analysis results show that the two principal stresses in the damage layer are closer to each other than that ground by the #3000 diamond wheel (average grit size 4 μm), which indicates that the GDIS distribution feature in a ground silicon wafer is related to the depth of damage layer. Moreover, the GDIS distribution presents a correlation with crystalline orientation. To clarify these results, SSD is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the type of defects under the surface is more diversified and irregular than that observed in the silicon surface ground by the #3000 diamond wheel. Additionally, it is found that most cracks initiate and propagate along the slip plane due to the high shear stress and high dislocation density instead of the tensile stress which is recognized as the dominant factor of crack generation in a brittle materials grinding process.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The principal curvature and the direction of the first principal curvature under the unit load. The chip size is 30 mm × 30 mm × 0.45 mm, the PSD in SSD layer is 1 N/m. Inset shows the chip deformation when the direction of the unit load φu is 22.5 deg, and the dashed lines are the planes of the principal curvature.

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the process for obtaining the GDIS in the ground wafer surface

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Fig. 3

Contour plots of the wafer deformation induced by GDIS using the #600 diamond wheel: (a) without spark-out and (b) spark-out time 15 s

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Fig. 4

Contour plots of the deformed chips formed by #600 diamond wheel: (a) measured by flatness instrument and (b) calculated based on the PSD value shown in Fig. 6(a)

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Fig. 5

Contour plots of the deformed chips formed by the #3000 diamond wheel: (a) measured by flatness instrument and (b) calculated based on the PSD value shown in Fig. 6(b)

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Fig. 6

The PSD value (the stress is compressive, unit: N/m) and the direction of the principal stress in the chips ground by: (a) #600 and (b) #3000 diamond wheels

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Fig. 7

Subsurface damage structure observed in cross section TEM specimens which are sampled from the positions where grinding was in: (a) the [128 309 0] direction, (b) the [128 309 0] direction, and (c) the [110] direction, and all the cross sections are vertical to [110]

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