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Research Papers

Magnetic-Field-Assisted Projection Stereolithography for Three-Dimensional Printing of Smart Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Lu Lu

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 W Taylor Street, ERF 1076,
Chicago, IL 60607
e-mail: llu27@uic.edu

Ping Guo

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical
and Automation Engineering,
The Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong, China

Yayue Pan

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 W Taylor Street, ERF 3025,
Chicago, IL 60607
e-mail: yayuepan@uic.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 7, 2016; final manuscript received February 2, 2017; published online March 8, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(7), 071008 (Mar 08, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1590; doi: 10.1115/1.4035964 History: Received November 07, 2016; Revised February 02, 2017

In this paper, an additive manufacturing (AM) process, magnetic field-assisted projection stereolithography (M-PSL), is developed for 3D printing of three-dimensional (3D) smart polymer composites. The 3D-printed magnetic field-responsive smart polymer composite creates a wide range of motions, opening up possibilities for various new applications, like sensing and actuation in soft robotics, biomedical devices, and autonomous systems. In the proposed M-PSL process, a certain amount of nano- or microsized ferromagnetic particles is deposited in liquid polymer by using a programmable microdeposition nozzle. An external magnetic field is applied to direct the magnetic particles to the desired position and to form the desired orientation and patterns. After that, a digital mask image is used to cure particles in photopolymer with desired distribution patterns. The magnetic-field-assisted projection stereolithography (M-PSL) manufacturing process planning, testbed, and materials are discussed. Three test cases, an impeller, a two-wheel roller, and a flexible film, were performed to verify and validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed process. They were successfully fabricated and remote controls of the printed samples were demonstrated, showing the capability of printed smart polymer composites on performing desired functions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of the smart polymer composite printing system using M-PSL process: stage X to move the magnet along X axis and stage A to rotate the magnet around Z axis; stage Y and stage Z to move the platform along Y and Z axis

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Fig. 2

Flowchart of the M-PSL process

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Fig. 3

A bottom-up projection SL setup: (a) hardware and (b) software

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Fig. 4

Digital design and process planning for an impeller test case: (a) digital design, (b) sliced deposition image, (c) sliced curing image, (d) particle dispersion before curing, and (e) curing pattern

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Fig. 5

Pictures of the fabricated impeller using the developed M-PSL process: (a) digital design, (b) printed part, (c) miroscopic image, and (d) microscopic image

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Fig. 6

Movements of the impeller under different external magnetic fields: (a) clockwise rotation and (b) counterclockwise rotation

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Fig. 7

Digital design and process planning for a two-wheel roller test case: (a) digital design, (b) sliced deposition image, (c) sliced curing image, (d) particle dispersion before curing, and (e) curing pattern

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Fig. 8

Pictures of the fabricated rolling machine using the developed M-PSL process: (a) digital design, (b) printed part, (c) microscopic image of the particle-free layers, and (d) microscopic image of the particle-polymer composite layers

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Fig. 9

Movements of the roller under external magnetic fields

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Fig. 10

Digital design and process planning for a square film test case: (a) digital design, (b) sliced deposition image, (c) sliced curing image, (d) particle dispersion before curing, and (e) curing pattern

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Fig. 11

Square film fabricated by the developed M-PSL process: (a) digital design, (b) printed part, and (c) microscopic image of the boundary region between the particle-filling region and particle-free region

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Fig. 12

Remote control the film by applying magnetic field

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