Research Papers

Image-Based Slicing and Tool Path Planning for Hybrid Stereolithography Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Hang Ye

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
The State University of New York,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: hye2@buffalo.edu

Chi Zhou

Department of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
The State University of New York,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: chizhou@buffalo.edu

Wenyao Xu

Department of Computer Science
and Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
The State University of New York,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: wenyaoxu@buffalo.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 21, 2016; final manuscript received December 21, 2016; published online March 8, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(7), 071006 (Mar 08, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1512; doi: 10.1115/1.4035795 History: Received September 21, 2016; Revised December 21, 2016

The hybrid stereolithography (SLA) process integrates a laser scanning-based system and a mask projection-based system. Multiple laser paths are used to scan the border of a 2D pattern, whereas a mask image is adopted to solidify the interior area. By integrating merits of two subsystems, the hybrid SLA process can achieve high surface quality without sacrificing productivity. For the hybrid system, closed polygonal contours are required to direct the laser scanning, and a binary image is also needed for the mask projection. We proposed a novel image-based slicing method. This approach can convert a 3D model into a series of binary images directly, and each image is corresponding to the cross section of the model at a specific height. Based on the resultant binary image, we use an image processing method to gradually shrink the pattern in the image. Boundaries of the shrunk image are traced and then restored as polygons to direct the laser spot movement. The final shrunk image serves as the input for the mask projection. Experimental results of test cases demonstrate that the proposed method is substantially more efficient than the traditional approaches. Its accuracy is also studied and discussed.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Gibson, I. , Rosen, D. W. , and Stucker, B. , 2010, Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing, Springer, New York.
Nakamoto, T. , and Yamaguchi, K. , 1996, “ Consideration on the Producing of High Aspect Ratio Micro Parts Using UV Sensitive Photopolymer,” 7th International Symposium on Micro Machine and Human Science (IEEE), Nagoya, Japan, Oct. 2–4, pp. 53–58.
Monneret, S. , Loubere, V. , and Corbel, S. , 1999, “ Microstereolithography Using a Dynamic Mask Generator and a Non-Coherent Visible Light Source,” Proc. SPIE, 3680, pp. 553–561.
Stampfl, J. , Fouad, H. , Seidler, S. , Liska, R. , Schwager, F. , Woesz, A. , and Fratzl, P. , 2004, “ Fabrication and Moulding of Cellular Materials by Rapid Prototyping,” Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., 21(4), pp. 285–296. [CrossRef]
Xu, G. , Zhao, W. , Tang, Y. , and Lu, B. , 2011, “ Novel Stereolithography System for Small Size Objects,” Rapid Prototyping J., 12(1), pp. 12–17. [CrossRef]
Jiang, C.-P. , 2010, “ Accelerating Fabrication Speed in Two-Laser Beam Stereolithography System Using Adaptive Crosshatch Technique,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 50(9–12), pp. 1003–1011. [CrossRef]
Kang, H.-W. , Park, J. H. , and Cho, D.-W. , 2012, “ A Pixel Based Solidification Model for Projection Based Stereolithography Technology,” Sens. Actuators A, 178, pp. 223–229. [CrossRef]
Bourell, D. L. , Leu, M. C. , and Rosen, D. W. , 2009, “ Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing,” The Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing Workshop (RAM), Alexandra, VA, Mar. 30–31, pp. 1–102.
Zhou, C. , Ye, H. , and Zhang, F. , 2015, “ A Novel Low-Cost Stereolithography Process Based on Vector Scanning and Mask Projection for High-Accuracy, High-Speed, High-Throughput, and Large-Area Fabrication,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 15(1), p. 011003. [CrossRef]
Hughes, J. F. , van Dam, A. , McGuire, M. , Sklar, D. F. , Foley, J. D. , Feiner, S. K. , and Akeley, K. , 2013, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practices, Addison-Wesley, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Choi, B. K. , and Park, S. C. , 1999, “ A Pair-Wise Offset Algorithm for 2d Point-Sequence Curve,” Comput.-Aided Des., 31(12), pp. 735–745. [CrossRef]
Park, S. C. , and Shin, H. , 2002, “ Polygonal Chain Intersection,” Comput. Graphics, 26(2), pp. 341–350. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. , and McMains, S. , 2005, “ Polygon Offsetting by Computing Winding Numbers,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85513.
de Berg, M. , Cheong, O. , van Kreveld, M. , and Overmars, M. , 2008, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Application, Springer, Berlin.
Rock, S. J. , and Wozny, M. J. , 1991, “ Utilizing Topological Information to Increase Scan Vector Generation Efficiency,” International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 12–14, pp. 1–9.
Kwok, T.-H. , Ye, H. , Chen, Y. , Zhou, C. , and Xu, W. , 2016, “ Mass Customization: Reuse of Digital Slicing for Additive Manufacturing,” ASME Paper No. DETC2016-60140.
Ye, H. , Zhou, C. , and Xu, W. , 2016, “ Mass Customization: Reuse of Topology Information to Accelerate Slicing Process for Additive Manufacturing,” International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium (SFF), Austin, TX, Aug. 7–10, pp. 53–66.
Botsch, M. , Kobbelt, L. , Pauly, M. , Alliez, P. , and Lévy, B. , 2010, Polygon Mesh Processing, A K Peters, Natick, MA.
Huang, P. , Wang, C. C. L. , and Chen, Y. , 2013, “ Intersection-Free and Topologically Faithful Slicing of Implicit Solid,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 13(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Stelldinger, P. , Latecki, L. J. , and Siqueira, M. , 2007, “ Topological Equivalence Between a 3d Object and the Reconstruction of Its Digital Image,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 29(1), pp. 126–140. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rossignac, J. R. , and Requicha, A. A. G. , 1986, “ Offsetting Operations in Solid Modelling,” Comput. Aided Geom. Des., 3(2), pp. 129–148. [CrossRef]
Nadler, S. B. , 1978. Hyperspaces of Sets: A Text With Research Questions, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Sonka, M. , Hlavac, V. , and Boyle, R. , 2008, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, Thomson Learning, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Engedy, I. , and Horváth, G. , 2009, “ A Global, Camera-Based Mobile Robot Localization,” 10th International Symposium of Hungarian Researchers on Computational Intelligence and Informatics (CINTI), Budapest, Nov. 12–14, pp. 217–228.
Gonzalez, R. C. , and Woods, R. E. , 2007, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Johnson, A. , 2014, “ Clipper,” accessed Dec. 20, 2016, http://www.angusj.com/delphi/clipper.php
Huang, P. , Wang, C. C. L. , and Chen, Y. , 2014, “ Algorithms for layered manufacturing in image space,” Advances in Computers and Information in Engineering Research, Vol. 1, ASME, New York, Chap. 15.
Sun, C. , Fang, N. , Wu, D. M. , and Zhang, X. , 2005, “ Projection Micro-Stereolithography Using Digital Micro-Mirror Dynamic Mask,” Sens. Actuators A, 121(1), pp. 113–120. [CrossRef]
Vatani, M. , Rahimi, A. R. , Brazandeh, F. , and Nezhad, A. S. , 2009, “ An Enhanced Slicing Algorithm Using Nearest Distance Analysis for Layer Manufacturing,” Int. J. of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 3(1), pp. 74–79.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Bunny model: (a) original 3D model, (b) original contour, (c) first offset contour, (d) second offset contour, (e) third offset contour, (f) mask image, (g) original image, (h) first shrunk image, (i) second shrunk image, (j) third shrunk image, (k) final mask image, (l) first reconstructed contour, (m) second reconstructed contour, and (n) third reconstructed contour

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sampling point conversion: (a) head model and (b) hand model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional model used for image generation demonstration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Examples of structuring element

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of solid offset and image processing methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Polygonal contour and image contour center chain: (a) an example case where assumption is valid and (b) an example case where assumption is invalid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Corner-connected case




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In