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Technical Brief

Effects of Sequential Cuts on White Layer Formation and Retained Austenite Content in Hard Turning of AISI52100 Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiao-Ming Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zhangxm.duyi@gmail.com

Xin-Da Huang, Li Chen, Han Ding

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China

Jürgen Leopold

Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and
Forming Technology,
Chemnitz 09661, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 26, 2016; final manuscript received October 25, 2016; published online January 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(6), 064502 (Jan 11, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1406; doi: 10.1115/1.4035125 History: Received July 26, 2016; Revised October 25, 2016

This technical brief is the extension of our previous work developed by Zhang et al. (2016, “Effects of Process Parameters on White Layer Formation and Morphology in Hard Turning of AISI52100 Steel,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(7), p. 074502). We investigated the effects of sequential cuts on microstructure alteration in hard turning of AISI52100 steel. Samples undergone five sequential cuts are prepared with different radial feed rates and cutting speeds. Optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are employed to analyze the microstructures of white layer and bulk materials after sequential cutting processes. Through the studies we first find out the increasing of white layer thickness in the sequential cuts. This trend in sequential cuts does work for different process parameters, belonging to the usually used ones in hard turning of AISI52100 steel. In addition, we find that the white layer thickness increases with the increasing of cutting speed, as recorded in the literature. To reveal the mechanism of white layer formation, XRD measurements of white layers generated in the sequential cuts are made. As a result retained austenite in white layers is identified, which states that the thermally driven phase transformations dominate the white layer formation, rather than the severe plastic deformation in cuts. Furthermore, retained austenite contents in sequential cuts with different process parameters are discussed. While using a smaller radial feed rate, the greater retained austenite content found in experiments is attributed to the generated compressive surface residual stresses, which possibly restricts the martensitic transformation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental test setup

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Fig. 2

Workpiece preparation: precutting, heat treatment, and cutting experiment

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Fig. 3

Geometry of the cutting edge

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Fig. 5

Specimens numbered according to cutting data in Table 1

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Fig. 6

White layer: (a) white layer structures recorded by LSCM, while f = 0.1 mm/r, Vc = 232 mm/min, and cutting sequence s = 3 and (b) variation of white layer thicknesses relative to cutting sequences and process parameters

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Fig. 7

Diffractograms taken on specimen no. 14

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Fig. 8

Variation of retained austenite content relative to cutting sequences and process parameters

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Fig. 9

Cutting forces in the case of f = 0.04 mm/r

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Fig. 10

Emissivity identification for AISI52100

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Fig. 11

Finite-element model of sequential cuts using A.L.E. approach

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Fig. 12

Geometric parameters of the FEM model in the cases: (a) f = 0.1 mm/r and (b) f = 0.1 mm/r

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Fig. 13

Definitions of Eulerian constraints in INP file

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Fig. 14

Predictions of temperature and residual stress: (a) in cutting, (b) tool remove, (c) release of boundaries, and (d) workpiece cooling

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Fig. 15

Cutting temperature distribution in sequential cuts while adopting f = 0.1 mm/r and Vc = 116 m/min

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Fig. 16

Cutting temperature distribution in sequential cuts while adopting f = 0.1 mm/r and Vc = 232 m/min

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Fig. 17

Cutting temperature distribution in sequential cuts while adopting f = 0.1 mm/r and Vc = 348 m/min

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Fig. 18

Cutting temperature distribution in sequential cuts while adopting f = 0.04 mm/r and Vc = 116 m/min

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Fig. 19

The highest temperature at tool flank–workpiece interface for white layer formation in sequential cuts with different process parameters

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Fig. 20

The temperature profile beneath the machined surface in the case of f = 0.04 mm/r (a) definition of the path for temperature extraction in FEM simulation for cut 3 and (b) the temperature distribution along the path

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Fig. 21

Relationship between cutting temperature and phase transformation zone depth, while Tmax1<Tmax2, Δh1<Δh2

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Fig. 22

Variations of cutting temperature and retained austenite content with time: blue areas represent the retained austenite contents

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Fig. 23

Residual stresses in sequential cuts with different process parameters: simulation results comparing against experimental ones

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