0
Research Papers

Quantitative Comparison of Pocket Geometry and Pocket Decomposition to Obtain Improved Spiral Tool Path: A Novel Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Divyangkumar D. Patel

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology,
Surat, Gujarat 395007, India
e-mail: dd.divyang@gmail.com

Devdas I. Lalwani

Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology,
Surat, Gujarat 395007, India
e-mail: dil@med.svnit.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 16, 2016; final manuscript received September 22, 2016; published online January 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(3), 031020 (Jan 27, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1338; doi: 10.1115/1.4034896 History: Received June 16, 2016; Revised September 22, 2016

In the 2.5D pocket machining, the pocket geometry (shape of the pocket) significantly affects the efficiency of spiral tool path in terms of tool path length, cutting time, surface roughness, cutting forces, etc. Hence, the pocket geometry is an important factor that needs to be considered. However, quantitative methods to compare different pocket geometries are scarcely available. In this paper, we have introduced a novel approach for quantitative comparison of different pocket geometries using a dimensionless number, “DN.” The concept and formula of DN are developed, and DN is calculated for various pocket geometries. A concept of percentage utilization of tool (PUT) is also introduced and is considered as a measure and an indicator for a good tool path. The guidelines for comparing pocket geometries based on DN and PUT are reported. The results show that DN can be used to predict the quality of tool path prior to tool path generation. Further, an algorithm to decompose pocket geometry into subgeometries is developed that improves the efficiency of spiral tool path for bottleneck pockets (or multiple-connected pocket). This algorithm uses another dimensionless number “HARIN” (HARI is the acronym of “helps in appropriate rive-lines identification” and suffix “N” stands for number) to compare parent pocket geometry with subgeometries. The results indicate that decomposing pocket geometry with the new algorithm improves HARIN and removes the effect of bottlenecks. Furthermore, the algorithm for decomposition is extended for pockets that are bounded by free-form curves.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Held, M. , and Spielberger, C. , 2013, “ Improved Spiral High-Speed Machining of Multiply-Connected Pockets,” Comput.-Aided Des. Appl., 11(3), pp. 346–357.
Xu, J. , Sun, Y. , and Zhang, X. , 2013, “ A Mapping-Based Spiral Cutting Strategy for Pocket Machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 67(9–12), pp. 2489–2500. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Jang, P. , and Stori, J. A. , 2005, “ A Metric-Based Approach to Two-Dimensional (2D) Tool-Path Optimization for High-Speed Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 127(1), pp. 33–48. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Xia, S. , and Qian, X. , 2011, “ Direct NC Path Generation: From Discrete Points to Continuous Spline Paths,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-48205.
Schulz, D. E. H. , 2003, “ High-Speed Machining,” Manufacturing Technologies for Machines of the Future, Springer, Berlin, pp. 197–214.
Schulz, H. , and Moriwaki, T. , 1992, “ High-Speed Machining,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 41(2), pp. 637–643. [CrossRef]
Dong, J. , Yuan, C. , Stori, J. A. , and Ferreira, P. M. , 2004, “ Development of a High-Speed 3-Axis Machine Tool Using a Novel Parallel-Kinematics X-Y Table,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 44(12–13), pp. 1355–1371. [CrossRef]
Stori, J. A. , and Wright, P. K. , 2000, “ Constant Engagement Tool Path Generation for Convex Geometries,” J. Manuf. Syst., 19(3), pp. 172–184. [CrossRef]
Popma, M. G. R. , 2010, “ Computer Aided Process Planning for High-Speed Milling of Thin-Walled Parts: Strategy-Based Support,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Banerjee, A. , Feng, H. Y. , and Bordatchev, E. V. , 2012, “ Process Planning for Floor Machining of 2½D Pockets Based on a Morphed Spiral Tool Path Pattern,” Comput. Ind. Eng., 63(4), pp. 971–979. [CrossRef]
Andolfatto, L. , Lavernhe, S. , and Mayer, J. R. R. , 2011, “ Evaluation of Servo, Geometric and Dynamic Error Sources on Five-Axis High-Speed Machine Tool,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(10–11), pp. 787–796. [CrossRef]
Lavernhe, S. , Tournier, C. , and Lartigue, C. , 2008, “ Kinematical Performance Prediction in Multi-Axis Machining for Process Planning Optimization,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 37(5–6), pp. 534–544. [CrossRef]
Monreal, M. , and Rodriguez, C. A. , 2003, “ Influence of Tool Path Strategy on the Cycle Time of High-Speed Milling,” Comput.-Aided Des., 35(4), pp. 395–401. [CrossRef]
Hatna, A. , Grieve, R. J. , and Broomhead, P. , 1998, “ Automatic CNC Milling of Pockets: Geometric and Technological Issues,” Comput. Integr. Manuf. Syst., 2(4), pp. 309–330. [CrossRef]
Chuang, J.-J. , and Yang, D. C. H. , 2007, “ A Laplace Based Spiral Contouring Method for General Pocket Machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 34(7), pp. 714–723. [CrossRef]
Kim, J.-H. , Moon, D.-K. , Lee, D.-W. , Kim, J.-s. , Kang, M.-C. , and Kim, K. H. , 2002, “ Tool Wear Measuring Technique on the Machine Using CCD and Exclusive Jig,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 130–131, pp. 668–674. [CrossRef]
Bieterman, M. B. , and Sandstrom, D. R. , 2003, “ A Curvilinear Tool Path Method for Pocket Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 125(4), pp. 709–715. [CrossRef]
Dorado-Vicente, R. , Romero-Carrillo, P. , Lopez-Garcia, R. , and Diaz-Garrido, F. A. , 2013, “ Comparing Planar Pocketing Tool Paths Via Acceleration Measurement,” Procedia Eng., 63, pp. 270–227. [CrossRef]
Zhuang, C. , Xiong, Z. , and Ding, H. , 2010, “ High Speed Machining Tool Path Generation for Pockets Using Level Sets,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 48(19), pp. 5749–5766. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y.-W. , Guo, D.-M. , and Jia, Z.-Y. , 2006, “ Spiral Cutting Operation Strategy for Machining of Sculptured Surfaces by Conformal Map Approach,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 180(1–3), pp. 74–82. [CrossRef]
Held, M. , and Spielberger, C. , 2009, “ A Smooth Spiral Tool Path for High Speed Machining of 2D Pockets,” Comput.-Aided Des., 41(7), pp. 539–550. [CrossRef]
Yao, Z. , and Joneja, A. , 2007, “ Path Generation for High Speed Machining Using Spiral Curves,” Comput.-Aided Des. Appl., 4(1–4), pp. 191–198.
Pamali, A. P. , 2004, “ Using Clothoidal Spirals to Generate Smooth Tool Paths for High Speed Machining,” M.S. thesis, Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Xiong, Z. , Zhuang, C. , and Ding, H. , 2011, “ Curvilinear Tool Path Generation for Pocket Machining,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 225(4), pp. 483–495.
Chatelain, J.-F. , Roy, R. , and Mayer, R. , 2008, “ Development of a Spiral Trajectory for High Speed Roughing of Light Alloy Aerospace Components,” Appl. Theor. Mech., 3(3), pp. 83–93.
Lee, E. , 2003, “ Contour Offset Approach to Spiral Tool Path Generation With Constant Scallop Height,” Comput.-Aided Des., 35(6), pp. 511–518. [CrossRef]
Banerjee, A. , Feng, H.-Y. , and Bordatchev, E. V. , 2012, “ Process Planning for Floor Machining of 2½D Pockets Based on a Morphed Spiral Tool Path Pattern,” Comput. Ind. Eng., 63(4), pp. 971–979. [CrossRef]
Bieterman, M. , 2001, “ Mathematics in Manufacturing: New Approach Cuts Milling Costs,” SIAM News, 34(7), pp. 1–3.
Chazelle, B. , and Palios, L. , 1994, “ Decomposition Algorithms in Geometry,” Algebraic Geometry and Its Applications, Springer, New York, pp. 419–447.
El-Khechen, D. , 2009, “ Decomposing and Packing Polygons,” Ph.D. thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Wei, X. , 2013, “ Some Algorithms for Computing Monotone Paths With Engineering Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pocket geometries along with EAC, EPC, MEC, and LEC: (a) triangular shaped, (b) plus shaped, and ((c) and (d)) octagonal shaped with spike protruding outside and inside, respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

((a)–(g)) Trend of D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, and Ce along with PUT, respectively, for various pocket geometries

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different regular polygonal geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different plus-shaped geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different triangular-shaped geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different rectangular-shaped geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different irregular-shaped geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

((a)–(e)) Spiral tool path, LEC, EAC, EPC, and MEC for different elliptical-shaped geometries and (f) plot showing comparison of DN, DNspiral, and PUT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Plot of DN and PUT in decreasing order of DN

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Polygon before decomposition with possible spit lines for typical bottleneck corner

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Spiral tool path on decomposed polygon

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Examples of pocket decomposition on H-, S-, and M-shaped pockets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Split line (rive line) determination using Pi and Pj  and spiral tool path for two different free-form pockets (i.e., (a) and (b)) after pocket decomposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

A pocket with an island

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In