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Research Papers

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling on Steady-State Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy 6061 to TRIP Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Xun Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: xunxliu@umich.edu

Gaoqiang Chen

Materials Science and Technology Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Jun Ni

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Zhili Feng

Materials Science and Technology Division,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 1, 2016; final manuscript received September 23, 2016; published online November 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(5), 051004 (Nov 10, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1311; doi: 10.1115/1.4034895 History: Received June 01, 2016; Revised September 23, 2016

A coupled thermal–mechanical model based on the Eulerian formulation is developed for the steady-state dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) process. Multiple phase flow theories are adopted in deriving analytical formulations, which are further implemented into the fluent software for computational fluid dynamics analysis. A shear stress boundary at the tool/workpiece interface yields a much more reasonable material distribution compared with a velocity boundary condition when the involved two materials have quite different physical and mechanical properties. The model can capture the feature of embedded steel strip in aluminum side, as observed in weld cross sections from experiments. For further evaluation, the calculated flow and thermal response are compared with experimental results in three welding conditions, which generally show good agreements.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Relationship between frictional shear stress τb and pressure p for TRIP steel

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Fig. 2

Workpiece computational domain where tool geometry and the shoulder plunge depth are carved out

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Fig. 3

Detailed geometry and dimension of the FSW tool [37]

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Fig. 4

Structured mesh of hexahedral elements on the workpiece

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Fig. 7

Material distribution under welding condition of rotating speed 1800 rpm, welding speed 60 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm: (a) workpiece top surface and (b) A-A section perpendicular to weldline

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Fig. 8

Experimental results of material distribution on the A-A cross section in Ref. [37] under welding condition of rotating speed 1800 rpm, welding speed 60 mm/min, and tool offset of 1.63 mm

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Fig. 5

Material distribution on workpiece top surface calculated from velocity boundary condition

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Fig. 6

Temperature distribution on workpiece top surface calculated from velocity boundary condition (unit: K)

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Fig. 13

Temperature distribution validation on workpiece bottom surface

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Fig. 21

Validation of thermal history on the bottom surface at 1 mm position in aluminum side in condition of a larger welding speed 120 mm/min

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Fig. 14

Material distribution in condition of a smaller tool offset 1.03 mm: (a) workpiece top surface and (b) A-A section perpendicular to weldline

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Fig. 15

Velocity field at different pin depths colored by material distribution in condition of a smaller tool offset 1.03 mm

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Fig. 9

Velocity field at different pin depths colored by material distribution (1800 rpm, 60 mm/min, and tool offset 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 10

Material velocity field (unit: m/s) at the tool contact region (1800 rpm, 60 mm/min, and tool offset 1.63 mm)

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Fig. 11

Temperature distribution (unit: K) under welding condition of rotating speed 1800 rpm, welding speed 60 mm/min, and tool offset 1.63 mm: (a) top surface and (b) bottom surface

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Fig. 12

Validation of thermal history on the bottom surface: (a) 1 mm position in aluminum side and (b) 5 mm position in steel side

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Fig. 16

Material velocity field (unit: m/s) at the tool contact region in condition of a smaller tool offset 1.03 mm

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Fig. 17

Temperature distribution (unit: K) in condition of a smaller tool offset 1.03 mm: (a) top surface and (b) bottom surface

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Fig. 18

Temperature distribution validation on workpiece bottom surface in condition of a smaller tool offset 1.03 mm

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Fig. 19

Material distribution in condition of a larger welding speed 120 mm/min: (a) workpiece top surface and (b) A-A section perpendicular to weldline

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Fig. 20

Material velocity field (unit: m/s) at the tool contact region in condition of a larger welding speed 120 mm/min

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