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Research Papers

Optimal Workpiece Setup for Time-Efficient and Energy-Saving Five-Axis Machining of Freeform Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Ke Xu

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology,
Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong

Kai Tang

Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology,
Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong
e-mail: mektang@ust.hk

Manuscript received May 22, 2016; final manuscript received September 15, 2016; published online November 10, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(5), 051003 (Nov 10, 2016) (16 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1292; doi: 10.1115/1.4034846 History: Received May 22, 2016; Revised September 15, 2016

Energy consumption in five-axis machining of freeform surfaces can be considerably large for large-size parts. This paper presents a study on how to setup the workpiece in order to minimize the energy consumption without modifying the toolpath itself. For an arbitrary freeform workpiece, the way how it is setup on the working table highly affects the machine's kinematic behavior, which dominates the overall processing time and energy consumption. Taking into account the speed and acceleration limit of each axis of the machine, we first establish the energy consumption model as a function of the workpiece setup. However, this original model involves certain critical physically pertinent coefficients (such as the moment of inertial of a rotary table) which are usually unavailable in practice. Instead, by exploring insightful geometric characteristics of the five-axis machine, an alternative energy consumption model is established which is independent of those hard-to-obtain coefficients. A simple algorithm is then designed to optimize this model. Both computer simulations and physical cutting experiments demonstrate that, when compared with an arbitrary setup, the optimized workpiece setup is able to achieve a significant saving (as much as 50%) in both energy consumption and total machining time, both using a same tool path.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Kinematic chain of a typical five-axis machine with an A–C table

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Fig. 2

The decoupled translational and rotational movement of a tool path after IKT

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Fig. 3

Different latitudes yield different rotational movements and energy consumptions

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Fig. 4

A schematic trend curve of energy consumption versus the latitude

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Fig. 5

To minimize Criterion 1 subject to the TADR constraint

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Fig. 6

Rotating TADR to minimize Criterion 1

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Fig. 7

Computing the horizon of a convex hull

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Fig. 8

Visualized Con 1 and Con 2 for a translational movement

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Fig. 9

Energy performance along different directions

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Fig. 10

Calculate the translational vector CT to satisfy Con 1

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Fig. 11

(a) The test part and (b) its tool path generated by NX

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Fig. 12

A virtue five-axis machine with an A–C tilting table and the reference setup

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Fig. 13

Rotational (a) and translational (b) movement under the reference setup

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Fig. 14

The optimized setup

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Fig. 15

Rotational (a) and translational (b) movements under the optimized setup

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Fig. 16

Regulated motions of the five axes under the reference setup: (a) X-axis, (b) Y-axis, (c) Z-axis, (d) A-axis, and (e)C-axis

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Fig. 17

Regulated motions of the five axes under the optimized setup: (a) X-axis, (b) Y-axis, (c) Z-axis, (d) A-axis, and (e)C-axis

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Fig. 18

JDGR200 five-axis machine (a) and the power measuring setup (b)

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Fig. 19

The freeform surface part and its tool path

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Fig. 20

The reference setup (a) and the optimized setup (b)

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Fig. 21

The base part representing the fixture for the optimized setup

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Fig. 22

The finished part with (a) the reference setup and (b) the optimized setup

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Fig. 23

Rotational movements under (a) the reference setup and (b) the optimized setup

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Fig. 24

Recorded translational movements of the machine under (a) the reference setup and (b) the optimized setup

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Fig. 25

Simulated motions of the rotary table under the reference setup (a) and (b), and the optimized setup (c) and (d)

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Fig. 26

Recorded active power with (a) the reference setup; (b) the optimized setup

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Fig. 27

Recorded energy consumption

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Fig. 28

A prototype design of the fixture for the optimized setup in the computer simulation

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