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Research Papers

An Experimental, Analytical, and Numerical Investigation of Hydraulic Bulge Test in Two-Layer Al–Cu Sheets

[+] Author and Article Information
F. A. Marandi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Iran University of Science and Technology,
Tehran 16846-13114, Iran
e-mail: farhad.marandy@gmail.com

A. H. Jabbari

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Iran University of Science and Technology,
Tehran 16846-13114, Iran
e-mail: a_jabbari@mecheng.iust.ac.ir

M. Sedighi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Iran University of Science and Technology,
Tehran 16846-13114, Iran
e-mail: Sedighi@iust.ac.ir

R. Hashemi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Iran University of Science and Technology,
Tehran 16846-13114, Iran
e-mail: rhashemi@iust.ac.ir

Manuscript received May 24, 2016; final manuscript received September 9, 2016; published online October 3, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(3), 031005 (Oct 03, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1294; doi: 10.1115/1.4034717 History: Received May 24, 2016; Revised September 09, 2016

The objective of this study is to investigate hydraulic bulge test in double layer sheets, which is based on experimental tests, analytical investigation, and numerical method. Bulge test due to creating plane stress condition on test sheet is extremely similar to sheet metal forming processes, such as hydroforming, stamping, and deep drawing. The results of the bulge test are more accurate and practical for analyzing the sheet forming process than tensile test. In multilayer sheets, the diverse properties of the constituent layers cause favorable properties on multilayer sheets, such as low weight, high strength, better ductility and corrosion resistance, and good thermal and electrical properties at the same time. For these reasons, multilayer sheets are highly useful in automotive, aviation, and chemical industries. Therefore, the necessity of investigating mechanical properties and formability in multilayer sheets is crucially important. During this study, the hydraulic bulge test has been investigated thoroughly, and then accurate analytical relations have been developed for bulge test in double layer Al–Cu sheet. In addition, the hydraulic bulge test in double layer sheets has been investigated by FEM. Finally, analytical and FE results have been verified by experimental tests. The results from the experimental tests are in good consistency with the extracted analytical relations and numerical method in the bulge test of double layer sheets.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme of hydraulic bulge test

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Fig. 2

Slab of bulged single layer sheet

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Fig. 3

Bulging of double layer sheet

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Fig. 4

Boundary condition and loading in FE model

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Fig. 5

FE model of double layer sheet bulging

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Fig. 6

Tensile and bulge test samples for Al–Cu double layer and its layers

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Fig. 7

Clamping system of bulge test

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Fig. 8

Bulge test apparatus and equipment

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Fig. 9

Bulge test of Al–Cu bulge test

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Fig. 10

Pressure–height diagram of Cu single layer

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Fig. 11

Pressure–height diagram of Al single layer

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Fig. 12

Plotting Eq. (12) for Al single layer bulge test

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Fig. 13

Plotting Eq. (12) for Cu single layer bulge test

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Fig. 14

True stress–strain of Al single layer

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Fig. 15

True stress–strain of Cu single layer

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Fig. 16

Height–pressure curve for Al–Cu double layer sheet

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Fig. 17

Plotting Eq. (16) for Al–Cu double layer sheet

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Fig. 18

True stress–strain curve of Al–Cu double layer sheet

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Fig. 19

Pressure–height of Al–Cu double layer sheet bulge test

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Fig. 20

Tensile test comparison in Al–Cu double layer sheet and its single layers

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Fig. 21

Bulge test comparison in Al–Cu double layer sheet and its single layers

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Fig. 22

Microhardness (Micro-Vickers) test from intersection of Al–Cu double layer

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Fig. 23

Effect of thickness on tensile test result of Al 1000

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Fig. 24

Effect of thickness on tensile test result of Al 3000

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Fig. 25

Normalized tensile test to thickness in Al 1000

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Fig. 26

Normalized tensile test to thickness in Al 3000

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Fig. 27

Normalized tensile test

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Fig. 28

Normalized bulge test

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